Annales Cambriae



B, C and E in Parallel,

from AD 1190 to AD 1250




Henry W. Gough-Cooper


First edition (September 2021)






Published online by the Welsh Chronicles Research Group:


Introduction: Annales Cambriae B, C and E in Parallel, from AD 1190 to AD 1250



Some forty years ago, David Dumville suggested making a series of parallel editions of Annales Cambriae one of which would be of B, C and E for the years 1190 to 1253.[1] The logic for commencing at 1190 is clear: this is the first annal in E. The justification for the suggested terminus at 1253 is less obvious. E has two almost continuous runs of annals over this period, 1190–1216 and 1233–1248, between which are three annals for 1228, 1230 and 1231. After its annal labelled '1248' (in fact, for events of 1249), E jumps to 1254 and then runs almost continuously down to 1266, where it ends. C has an annal for events of 1250 (c572) and then an empty annal (c573), but its next annal after that (c574) is for events of 1254. The argument for 1253 in the case of B is even less obvious. In B, there is a virtual lacuna for the years 1247 to 1250, of which 1247, 1248 and 1250 are empty and 1249 is a brief note of the capture of Damietta by Louis IX, king of France, paralleling an item in the Winchester–Waverley annals,[2] and noted in E's annal for '1248'. B's annal for 1251 is also quite brief, but this is where its Welsh notices revive. So, B has a series of almost empty annals from 1247 to 1250, C's last annotated annal before 1254 is for 1250, and E lapses between '1248'  and 1254. Therefore, the parallel edition presented here runs from 1190 to 1250.




B has a continuous AD dating apparatus that gives it the appearance of a regular year-by-year chronicle, but closer examination shows this to be deceptive. B's chronology is cogent from 1190 down to 1213, although the items grouped under b1226 1204[3] are, in fact, for events from April 1203 through to May 1205. Its annal b1236 1214 is for events of 1214 and 1215, its annal b1237 1215 for events of 1216, and its next three annals, b1238 1216 to b1240 1218, are all apparently for 1217. B then has no annals for 1218 and 1219. Its next annal, b1241 1219, is for 1220; it has no annal for 1221; its annal b1242 1220 is for 1222, and its next two annals, b1243 1221 and b1244 1222, are for 1223 and 1224, as are the next two, b1245 1223 and b1246 1224, resynchronising with the actual AD dates. B has no annals for 1225, 1226 or 1227, and then resumes with two triplet sets of annals, b1247 1225 to b1249 1227 and b1250 1228 to b1230 1230, which are both for the years 1228, 1229 and 1230, after which the chronicle again becomes synchronous with the actual AD dates. It has no annal for 1232, but then has a continuous and cogent set of annals down to b1267 1246, after which there appears to have been a lacuna in the source for the next four years, 1247, 1248, 1249, and 1250. As noted above, a parallel of an item in the Winchester–Waverley annals has been inserted into b1270 1249.


C has only a single indication of AD dating in this period (1190–1250), when it states the decennovenal year and names it explicitly as AD 1216 in its annal c536. Its annal c511 is certainly for events of 1190, and the chronology appears cogent down to 1203 (c524). The next annal, c525, is a compendium of events from 1204 (the loss of Normandy) to 1208 (the Papal interdict on England), some of which are reprised in its subsequent annals. It is unclear whether there was a separate annal for 1204 or 1205, but C is certainly an annal short between its annals for 1203 (c524) and 1207 (c527). From 1207, C has the correct number of annals down to 1214 (c534), but c534 notes events of 1214 and 1215, and C's next four annals (c535–c538) cover events of the years 1215 to 1217.[4] The next annal, c539, is for two events of 1219 (of the three chronicles, C alone has an annal for 1219), so that there are no separate annals for 1217 or 1218. C then has a full complement of annals down to its annal for 1231 (c551). Between c551 and c555 (1235), C has three annals which should be for the years 1232, 1233 and 1234. The first of these, however, contains a notice of the death of Rhys Gryg, who is otherwise said to have died in 1233 or 1234 (B and E s.a. 1234; P and S s.a. 1233), followed by the notice of a drought, possibly that of 1232.[5] The second annal, c553, is empty, while the third, c554, recounts an incident during Richard Marshal's campaign in Wales. This campaign is noted s.a. 1233 in B, E, P and S. The annals c552 and c554 seem to refer to the years 1232 and 1233, indicating some creative filling-in of a lacuna between 1231 and 1235, with perhaps no annal for 1234. There is only one annal (c558) between the annal for 1237 (c557) and that for 1240 (c559), and then two further annals before the annal for 1241 (c562). From c562 down to the annal for 1249 there are the correct number of annals, but then there is an extra annal, c571, possibly either for 1249 or 1250, before the annal for 1250 (c572).


E parallels the Brutiau (P, R and S) from 1190 (e1) down to 1235 (e33). But E has no equivalent of the annals in the Brutiau for 1192 or 1206. Its annal for 1192, e3, is an item found in the annal in the Brutiau for 1191, and e17 1206 is an item in the Brutiau for 1205. E and the Brutiau then have no annal for 1207, but their chronological apparatus goes one year into arrears, so that e18 1207 and the annal in the Brutiau for 1207 are in fact annals for 1208.[6] The Brutiau correct this by having two annals for 1212, 1211–1212 and 1212–1212,[7] but E continues to be in arrears down to its annal for 1217, e27 1216. The next annal in E, e28 1228, resynchronises with the actual AD year, 1228. E has no annal for 1229 or 1232 (B's second annal for 1228, b1250 1228, is empty, and B and C also have no annal for 1232). After this, E has a continuous series of correctly dated annals down to e45 1247, and then an erroneously dated annal, e46 1248, for events of 1249. E then jumps to 1254.





1: Parallels in B and C


As noted above, the chronicle segments paralleled here for the period 1190 to 1250 commence at 1190 only because that is where the Exeter chronicle, E, begins. Following the lacuna in the 1180s, the similarity of some of the annals in B and C suggests there was a common source behind both chronicles up to the first decade of the thirteenth century. Of the sixteen annals from 1187 to 1202, only three are very close parallels (b1209/c507, b1213/c508, b1224/c523), but these are for events abroad, namely the crusade and the capture of Arthur of Brittany. Of the remaining annals, nine contain very similar wording for similar events, but four are completely dissimilar (b1211/c509, b1212/c511[8], b1220/c519, b1221/c520). At 1203 some confusion is noticeable: where C has an annal (c524) noting the death of Arthur of Brittany (2 or 3 April 1203) and then the consecration of Geoffrey, bishop of St Davids (6 December 1203), under the same year and in the correct order, B has two annals recording the same events but in the wrong order (b1225 1203 consecration of Bishop Geoffrey; b1226 1204 death of Arthur).[9] After 1203, B and C diverge completely, and none of their content thereafter suggests a common origin. E shows some similarity with the Brutiau (P, R and S) down to e29 1230, after which its annals are very similar to those in B down to 1246 (b1267, e44).


The annal in C for 1190 (c511) is similar to the first part of the first annal in E (e1), noting the departure of the kings Richard I of England and Philip II of France to the Holy Land. But the rest of e1 is a parallel of the first two items in P and S 1190. B's annal for 1190 has nothing in common with C, E or the Brutiau. The next annal in B, b1213, however, has some very similar wording to that in C (c512


b1213 1191 (first item): Rex francíe philippus cíuítatem accharon obsedít · nam Rícardus rex anglíe ad ciprum ínsulam diuertít.

c512: Philippus rex cíuítatem accaron obsedit . nam Ricardus rex iter ad cyprum diuerterat.


b1213 1191 (last item): Resus filíus grifíní castellum de Newer die asumpcionis sancte marie fortí manu francís expulsís cepit.

c512: Resus filius grifut castellum de Kemmer die assumptionis sancte marie cepit .


But these annals have very little in common with e2 whose four items are parallels of the first, second, fourth and fifth items in the annal in P and S for 1191.[10] B and C alone give a precise date for the capture of Nevern Castle, the Feast of the Assumption (granting that Kemmer in C is a scribal error for *Neuuer, or similar).[11] E appears to record the capture of the castle (dynneuore, apparently for *de Neuer) in its next annal e3 1192.


The next ten annals in C (c513 – c522) are briefer than those in B (b1214 1192 – b1223 1201), but most of C's annals have similar, if not exactly parallel, content to items in B. In the first of these (b1214/c513), both chronicles note Rhys ap Gruffudd's ten-week siege of Swansea and its abandonment after some of Rhys' men drowned, but B gives the place its Welsh name, Abertawe (abertawi), whereas C calls it Swansea (sweynese). B notes the liberation of Maelgwn ap Rhys from the prison of William de Braose, the end of an imprisonment that B had noted in 1189 (b1211), but neither Maelgwn's imprisonment or his release are noted in C. B says Maelgwn was imprisoned and released by his father, Rhys ap Gruffudd, but P and S, while agreeing with Maelgwn's capture and imprisonment by his father in 1189, simply say that he 'escaped' in 1192 'from the prison of the Lord of Brycheiniog' (i.e. William de Braose).[12] As  noted above, E has no equivalent.


b1215/c514 contain similar information about Hywel ap Rhys capturing Wiston Town (B, oppidum wiz; C, villa viech) but the wording is quite different, and is at variance with 'Wiston castle' in E (castellum gwis). Neither is it clear if there is not some confusion between the reported destruction of Llandovery (lanamdeuery) in C and the razing of Llawhaden in B and E (B, lanwaden; E, lanhuwadein). In any case, the wording of B and C is not parallel:


b1215 1193: Círca festum sancti ciricíí familiares hoeli seís oppidum wiz nocturno dolo et ínsidíís cuiusdam traditorís deintus ceperunt . . . Item hoelus et mailgonus filíí resí oppídum lanwadan diruerunt . . . quam franci lupíno more ínsecutí sunt walenses eorum gladíís íuxta Rutnant numero ·lx· perímuntur .

c514: Hoelus filius Resi castrum de villa viech dolo cepit . et castrum de lanamdeuery destruxit . et plures de suís ibidem occisi sunt .


This is not the case with the next two annals in the chronicles, b1216/c515 and b1217/c516, where some of the wording is similar but some of the items appear to be misplaced by a year:


b1216 1194: Hoelus seís nobiles flandrenses apud peuluníauc occidít.

c516: Flandrenses nobiles ab hoelo seys occisi sunt.


b1216: Mailgonus resi filíus · dauid filium mauricíí et tanchardum congnomento monachum nobilissímos milites occidít.

c516: Mailgun filius Res dauid filium mauricíí et tankardum monachum interfecit.


b1216: Resus filíus grífini a filíis suís hoelo et mailgono captus est.

c515: Resus filius grifut a filíís suis captus est.[13]


b1217 1195: Rodri filíus owini obiit · Rogerus de mortuo mari castellum cameron firmauít.

c516: Rodri filíus oweyn obiit . Rogerus de mortimer castrum camaron firmauít.


b1217: Willelmus de breusa · castellum sancti clarí ualida manu cepít et tenuít et ín eo captís hoeli familiaribus .lx.

c516: Willelmus de breusa castrum de sancto claro vi cepit et . xl . de familia hoeli filii Resi.


In the annal for 1196, b1218/c517, only the first item seems to be common to both chronicles, but maysheueyt in C could be the same as Redenor in B (New Radnor?):


b1218 1196: Resus filíus grifíní Kermerdín combussít.

c517: Res filius grifut karmardin combussit.


Part of the wording in C of its very brief notice for Rhys ap Gruffudd's death in 1197 is comparable to some of the wording at the beginning of the more extensive obituary in B (b1219/c518):


b1219 1197: Resus grifíní filíus sudwallie princeps . . . ·iiii· kalendas · maíi moritur · cuius corpus . . .  apud sanctum Dauíd . . . humatum est.

c518: Resus filius grifut sutwallie princeps moritur . iiii°. kalendas maíí . cuius corpus apud sanctum dauid . . . humatum est.


But the annals for 1198 and 1199, b1220/c519 and b1221/c520, are wholly dissimilar both in wording and subject matter. The annals for 1200, b1222/c521 have similar subject matter but wholly different wording; but the annals for 1201 not only have similar subject matter but one item is a direct parallel:


b1223 1201: Resus paruus cantrefbechan cum oppido tenuít · mailgonus Resi filíus castellum Kilgerran quod ín potestate grifíní fuerat cepit.

c522: Resus paruus cantref bechan cum opido tenuít . Mailgun resi filius castellum Kilkernn quod ín potestate grifíní fuerat cepit.


This parallelism is even more evident in the annal for 1202, b1224/c523, the only divergence being B additional note of the capture of Arthur's sister, Eleanor:


b1224 1202: Arthurus dux armorícanorum britonum a rege Iohanne in belli conflíctu cum multis baronibus et militibus · philippo Regi francorum fauentibus captus est . et alienor soror eius cum ipso.

c523: Arthurus dux armoricanorum britonum a iohanne rege anglie in belli conflictu cum multis baronibus et militibus philippo regi francorum fauentibus captus est.


B and C both note the suspicions surrounding Arthur's death, but C has this correctly placed in its annal for 1203 (where both B and C have items on the consecration of Geoffrey, bishop of Menevia; b1225/c524), whereas B notes this in its annal for 1204 (b1226). Thereafter, apart from noting the death of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury in 1205 (b1227/c525), B and C become largely independent, and any parallelisms of wording cease. In fact, C does not note any further Welsh events until 1210 (c530) where it has an item on King John and his army going to Ireland via Milford Haven and returning via Fishguard; 1211 (c531) where it notes King John's campaign in North Wales; and 1214 (c534) where it notes the death of Geoffrey, bishop of Menevia, and the consecration of his successor, Gervase, and Llywelyn capturing Carmarthen, Cardigan and Cilgerran. For 1215 and 1216, C has two pairs of annals (c535/c537 and c536/c538), after which the next annal is for 1219 (c539). I have argued elsewhere that this is evidence of a radical revision of the ancestral St Davids chronicle made in or about 1216–17.[14]


2. Parallels between E and the Brutiau


Kathleen Hughes suggested that the annals in E for 1190 to 1255 "are the nearest we can come to the Latin original of the Brut y Tywysogyon in its earliest known version, before it became conflated with supplementary material".[15] But the relationship between the annals in E and those in the Brutiau is far from straightforward, and the period might be more accurately partitioned into four segments, of which only the first three will be considered here: 1) 1190–1205 (e1 to e16/17); 2) 1208–1217 (e18 1207 to e27 1216); 3) 1228–1247 (e28 to e45). The annals in E from 1190 to 1217 do have distinct similarities to those in the Brutiau, but there are also significant differences almost from the outset. When comparing the Latin annals in E with the Welsh annals in the Brutiau, the annals in E will be described as the same or very similar to those in the Brutiau if the Latin phrases in E could conceivably be the source of the Welsh phrases in the Brutiau. Similarly, the annals in E will be described as  wholly or largely unlike those in the Brutiau if none or only a few phrases in E could be the source of those in the Brutiau. There are also several cases where the chronicles deal with the same events but the annals in the Brutiau do not look much or anything like a Welsh translation of the Latin annals of E.


There are references to Rhys ap Gruffudd (Yr Arglwdd Rhys, 'The Lord Rhys') and his descendants in almost every annal in E from 1190 to 1215 (1216) when Llywelyn ab Iorwerth apportioned lands between the sons of Rhys and their nephews.[16] The very first annal, e1, synchronises the departure of Richard and Philip, the kings of England and France, on the Third Crusade with the building of the castle at Cydweli by Rhys ap Gruffudd in 1190. Whereas the Brutiau note Philip, Richard and Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, setting out on crusade, E slightly varies this in noting almost as an afterthought that Richard and Philip took with them 'the archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin by name'. The corresponding annals in B and C do not mention Cydweli. The second annal in E, e2, is a series of obituaries, including that of Baldwin, identical to that in the Brutiau, but only E notes where Baldwin died, 'in the land of Jerusalem' where he 'sleeps with his fathers'. E then places Rhys' capture of Nevern castle in its next annal, e3, whereas B, C and the Brutiau all include this in their annals for 1191, and B and C give a precise date for the event (15 August). E gives the name of the castle as Dynneuore, perhaps thinking of 'Dinefwr' rather than, as in B, de Newer (P, kastell nyner;[17] R, Niuer). E has no equivalent to the annal for 1192 in the Brutiau, which includes Maelgwn ap Rhys' escape from the prison of 'the lord of Brycheiniog' and Rhys ap Gruffudd's seizure of the castle of Lawhaden.


The next annal in E, e4 1193, is very similar to the Brutiau for 1193, albeit with some differences: E does not mention Rhodri ab Owain first taking Anglesey and then being driven out of it, nor the warband of Maelgwn ap Rhys breaching Ystrad Meurig, and it does not have the detail that Philip fitz Wizo and his family were captured during taking of Wizo’s castle by Hywel Sais. By contrast, in e5 1194, E has only one item under this year, the capture of Rhys ap Gruffudd by his sons, equivalent to only one of the six in the Brutiau. In this annal for 1194, B and the Brutiau have their first mention of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, here driving Dafydd ab Owain from Gwynedd. The following annal, e6 1195, is almost exactly equivalent to the annal in the Brutiau for the same year, except the latter name the castle (Cymaron) that Roger Mortimer built in Maelinydd, and E notes the death of Rhodri ab Owain (as do B and C), but the scribe has unaccountably miscopied *rodri as botri. Rhodri's obituary is the first item in b1217 and c516, but the last in e6, suggesting that it was added to E, or the source of E, at a late stage. E has also apparently omitted *filiis before catwallaun.


The annal in E for 1196, e7, is again very similar to that in the Brutiau, but E has the abbreviation H. for Hubert, the archbishop of Canterbury, which the Brutiau have all expanded erroneously (P, hu; R and S, Henri). The Brutiau also say that when the archbishop came against Gwenwynwyn his allies were 'the princes of Gwynedd' (tywyssogyon gwyned), where E has 'all the princes of Wales' (tocius wallie principes). The Brutiau (P and R) call Gruffudd the 'abbot of Strata Marcella' (S 'of Welshpool', y Trallwng, which is near Strata Marcella), where E has the probably erroneous Strathflur (i.e. Strata Florida). It seems here that the variations in the Brutiau are amendments to the source they are sharing with E; in the case of archbishop H., an erroneous expansion.


The comparison of the annals for 1197 in E and the Brutiau is much more problematic. The notice in e8 of the plague and the death of Rhys ap Gruffudd consists of approximately ten elements: (1) the plague in Britain and France; (2) Atropos destroys Rhys; (3) Fortuna, and Rhys' privileged position on her wheel; (4) the lamentations with which Rhys' death should be greeted; (5) the appeal to the historian of Thebes (Statius) and the historian-poet of Troy (Virgil); (6) the date of Rhys' death, 4 kalends of May; (7) Rhys as the head of all Wales; (8) a statement of Rhys' noble origins and a catalogue of his virtues, and a further comparison of Rhys with ten figures from classical antiquity and one from the Bible; (9) lament at the loss of Rhys' qualities; (10) a concluding motto: heu! heu! iam wallia uiduata dolet, ruitura dolore ('oh! oh! now bereaved Wales laments, overcome with grief'). Almost everything that is in E is also in P and R (S is comparatively brief here, noting only the plague and Rhys' death and its date), but P and R are themselves dissimilar. P parallels E but has the items in the following order: 1, 6, 7, 4, 8, 2, 3, 9 and 10 (P has no equivalent to item 5). P is made considerably longer by its inclusion of an encomium of thirty-six Latin metrical verses written on the death of the Lord Rhys, followed by eleven more which are said to be a eulogy on Rhys ap Gruffudd's sepulchre written after his burial. The last verse is the equivalent of (10): Wallia iam viduata dolet ruitura dolore. R also parallels E, but has  fewer items in the following order: 1, 2, 5, 3, 7, 8.


The opening statements of E, P and R are all similar, noting the plague that afflicted the 'whole of Britain and France' (E, tocius brittannie nec etiam et galliam terminos; P, holl ynys brydein afreing; R, ar hyt ynys Prydein oll a theruyneu Freinc), and P and R also reflect the poetic reference in E to Atropos, but both have the erroneous antropos. Of the Brutiau, only R refers to 'the histories of Statius and 'the songs of Virgil' (ystoriaeu Ystas ystoriawr na chath[l]eu Feryll vard), while E has an oblique but more fulsome reference to them as 'that high-minded historian of Thebes' and 'that most noble of poets, the historian of Troy' (ille magnanimus historíographus thebanus . . . ille historiographus troíanus poetarum nobilíssímus . . .), as if the writer expected his audience to recognise the allusion. R is the only one of the chronicles not to supply the date of Rhys' death (4 kalends May). R omits Euryalus (E, eurial(us)) from the catalogue of classical heroes in item 8; P has curialius.[18] B, C and E all call Rhys ap Gruffudd 'prince of South Wales', but only B notes that Rhys was buried at St Davids (apud sanctum Dauid). B also has a homage of some 'little verses' (versiculos), which it modestly describes as being written 'after our custom' (pro modulo nostro) and which alludes to some figures from antiquity, but these verses are wholly unlike any of those in P.


The account of Rhys' death is immediately followed in E by additional obituaries of three further Welsh nobles, as if to suggest that they, too, died of the pestilence. This would tie in with the introductory statement about the malady carrying off an uncountable number of common folk as well as nobles, dukes and princes. E then describes the events after Rhys' death, namely the conflict between his heir Gruffudd ap Rhys and Gruffudd's brother Maelgwn, noting Maelgwn and Gwenwynwyn of Powys attacking Aberystwyth, and their capture, imprisonment and subsequent handing over to the English of Gruffudd ap Rhys. The Brutiau have these events reversed: the conflict between Gruffudd and Maelgwn, the sons of Rhys ap Gruffudd, is described first, followed by the additional obituaries, perhaps with the intention of making a clear distinction between the deaths of the other Welsh nobles and that of Rhys ap Gruffudd.


The next annal, e9, is a close equivalent of the annal for 1198 in the Brutiau, and could well be a faithful representation of their original Latin source. E does not, however, have three brief notices that are in the Brutiau: the monks from Cwm-hir going to Cymer in Nannau, and the sons of Rhys taking Dinefwr (both notices appear at the beginning of the annal in the Brutiau after the notice of Maelgwn taking Cardigan and the castle of Ystrad Meurig); and the death of Peter, bishop of St Davids (which appears at the end of the annal in the Brutiau and which is also noted in C). E does provide, however, the cognomen Rascop for Owain ap Cadwallon, not found in the Brutiau. The annal for 1199, e10, is virtually identical to that in the Brutiau, but wholly different to the annal in B; while C has a note of the death of Richard, king of the English, also noted in the third item in E and the Brutiau. There is one slightly odd variation in E, where it specifies that Maelgwn invaded the domum (house) which Gruffudd had built at Dineirth, while the Welsh texts call it a castle (kastell). In the following annal, e11, E notes Maelgwn selling the castle of Cardigan to the English, as do all the chronicles; C even says he gave it (donauit) to the 'king's men' (hominibus regi). [19] B is particularly condemnatory about this action, saying that for this Maelgwn received the malediction of the clergy and the whole population of Wales (pro malediccione cleri et populi tocius Wallie). In the Brutiau, this notice comes between an obituary of Gruffudd ap Cynan ab Owain who died at Aberconwy Abbey, and a note on the founding of the monastery of Llynegwestl in Iâl which S alone attributes to Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor. Similarly, the Brutiau's annal for 1201 is a close parallel of e12 1201, commencing with an account of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth driving out Maredudd ap Cynan from Llŷn and Eifionydd, which is the first mention of Llywelyn in E. There are two brief notices that appear in the Brutiau but not in E: the first, following immediately the note on Llywelyn, a note of the community of Strata Florida going to the new church on Whit Sunday Eve; the second, at the end of the annal, about an earthquake in Jerusalem.


E's annal for 1202 (e13) is only equivalent to the first two items of the annals in the Brutiau; E does not have the Brutiau's account of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's attack on Powys, or of Rhys Ieuanc ap Gruffudd ap Rhys taking the castle of Llandovery. E unaccountably calls Hywel ap Gruffudd the brother (fratris sui) of Maredudd ap Cynan (the Brutiau all identify Hywel as Maredudd's nephew). Neither E nor the Brutiau mention the capture of Arthur, duke of Brittany which is the sole subject of the annals in B and C, b1224 and c523, for this year. The annal in E for 1203 (e14) is even slighter, noting only Rhys ap Gruffudd taking the castle of Llanegwad. The Brutiau have three more items for 1203: the first, about Llywelyn ab Iorwerth driving Dafydd ab Owain out of Gwynedd; the second, concerning Maelgwn and Gwenwynwyn taking the castles of Llandovery and Llangadog; P and R note Maelgwn ap Rhys completing the castle of Dineirth. Again, the annals in E and the Brutiau bear no resemblance to those in B and C.


The content of the annals for 1204 in E (e15) and the Brutiau are almost identical, but E's expression of admiration for Hywel Sais, iuuenis egregius, spes suorum horror hostium ('a worthy youth, hope of his people, terror of the enemy') has no equivalent in the Brutiau, and E states an approximate season for William Marshal's taking of the castle of Cilgerran, circa aduentum domini ('about Advent', i.e. the end of November or the beginning of December).


The notices in the following two annals in E, e16 1205 and e17 1206, are both found under the annal for 1205 in the Brutiau. The Brutiau have a short genealogical statement, not in E, at the end of the account of the slaying of Cedifor ap Gruffudd and his four sons which may have been added as a gloss. E then has no equivalent to the annal in the Brutiau for 1206, leaving its chronology a year in arrears, so that e18 1207 is in fact the annal for 1208. In this, E gives a precise date for Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's assault on Maelgwn ap Rhys, circa festum sancti michelis (' about the Feast of St Michael', i.e. about 29 September), but its account of Llywelyn seizing Gwenwynwyn's territory, of Maegwn ap Rhys'  destruction of four of the castles he possessed at that time, and Llywelyn's subsequent actions, is similar but less detailed than that in the Brutiau. But the rest of e18 – the greater half – is taken up with a detailed account, unparalleled in the Brutiau, of the assault by the sheriff of Gloucester, Gerald Athee, on Buelth and his encampment at Strata Florida's grange of Aberduhonw, from whence he was driven out by the Welsh. In its next annal, e19, E provides information not in the Brutiau, dating the attack by Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, on the castle of Llangadog precisely as Sabbato post octauus pentecostes, 'on the Sunday after the octave of Pentecost'.[20] E additionally notes that the castle belonged to their uncle, Rhys Fychan (Res(us) paru(us) auunculi sui, also known as Rhys Gryg). In e20 1209 (= 1210), after noting King John's departure for Ireland, the rest of the account is markedly different to that in the Brutiau, although E does include a note about the subsequent deaths of William the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, and his mother, wife, and sons, in prison in England, but does not say how or where (C and the Brutiau specify it was the wife of William Braose and her son, William the Younger, who were starved to death at Windsor Castle). Similarly, E's account of the Earl of Chester building Degannwy is quite different to that in the Brutiau and does not mention Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's involvement at all. E also relates how Falkes, sheriff of Pembroke, led by Maelgwn ap Rhys, attacked the castle of the sons of Gruffudd at Dineirth, an account wholly unparalleled in the Brutiau, which do not introduce Falkes until their next annal. The Brutiau have a quite different item on how, after Gwenwynwyn recovered his land, Maelgwn ap Rhys launched an attack on the cantref of Penweddig only to be driven off by the sons of Gruffudd, an account which seems to have nothing at all to do with the attack on the castle of Dineirth described in E. This is followed in both E and the Brutiau by a note about Ingelard, sheriff of Gloucester, fortifying the castle of Buelth, but the account in E is much fuller and more precise about the number of English soldiers killed by the Welsh before the English prevailed and 'occupied the whole of the aforesaid land' (totam predictum terram optinuere).


The Brutiau note that Llywelyn made attacks against the English, but are unspecific about where this took place, whereas E states that he devastated Cynlaith and Nanheudwy, e21 1210 (=1211). E then notes the death of Gruffudd ap Ifor Glamorgan (gulathmorgan) at the abbey of Caerleon, which the Brutiau have at the end of their annal for this year, but without Ifor's cognomen or stating where Gruffudd died, and with which they couple an obituary of Maredudd ap Caradog. The account in E of John's expeditions against Llywelyn have some striking similarities with those in the Brutiau, particularly on the scarcity and cost of food suffered by the English troops at Degannwy in the first campaign, but E is more specific about when the first campaign started, circa pentecosten, 'around Pentecost', as it is about when Falkes (to whom E does not refer by name but simply as balli(us) regis, the king's bailiff) began to build the castle at Aberystwyth, circa exaltacionem sancte crucis, 'around the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross', i.e. about 14 September.


At the start of its next annal, e22 1211 (= 1212), E notes that the castle of Carreg Hofa was rebuilt by the English, and then notes the hanging of Maelgwn ap Rhys, not yet ten years old, at amoythic (Shrewsbury). The Brutiau do not have the item on Carreg Hofa (see also e23 1212, below). They do have the note on Maelgwn ap Rhys, but say that he was not yet seven years old, and add that he was hung by Robert Vieuxpont. E also adds an epitaph deploring this - Mortuus mundo: vivus deo. Raptus est enim ne malicia mutaret intellectum illius ('Dead to the world: alive in God. He was taken away, lest wickedness should alter his understanding'),which has no equivalent in the Brutiau.[21] E follows this with a brief note of Llywelyn 'prince of North Wales' leading an alliance of the Welsh against the English king but gives no details: this is perhaps the equivalent of a detailed account found in the Brutiau under its annal for 1212 (in Jones' editions 1211–1212). E continues with a note of the hanging of three Welsh worthies (uenerabiles), a battle between the Christians and the Saracens, and the absolution of Llywelyn, Maelgwn and Gwenwynwyn by the Pope, granting remission of their sins if they would counter the iniquity of the king of England, and removing the Interdict on England and Wales in their lands; following which, the Welsh princes united and took back possession of the Perfeddwlad (the territories lying between the River Conwy and the River Dee). Apart from the order of the items on the hangings of the Welshmen and the battle between the Christians and the Saracens being reversed, these are almost exactly paralleled in the next annal in the Brutiau (1212–1212), but with the additional detail that the battle was in Spain, and stating that the Papal Interdict had been in effect for five years rather than (as E would have it) four. The annal in E ends with a brief statement, not in the Brutiau, noting that all except three of the castles that the king had built were completely destroyed, with their garrisons being killed or captured without the king sending anyone to their aid. As noted above, at this point (their two annals for events of 1212) the Brutiau resynchronise their chronology, whereas E continues to be one year in arrears. In effect, of the annals that they have in common, E includes in one year the events the Brutiau spread over two.


The following annal in E, e23 1212 (=1213), notes the two sons of Gruffudd, Rhys and Owain, with the help of the French taking Rhys Gryg's (Resus filius resi) castle of Dinefwr, and the French subsequently taking the castle of Llandovery, after which Rhys was captured at Carmarthen and imprisoned. The note in E is fairly brief, whereas the Brutiau have a much more detailed account, making Rhys ap Gruffudd the protagonist (his brother Owain joining in later) and describing the involvement in the campaign of the sheriffs of Hereford and Cardiff (P erroneously calls both these men 'Falkes', but R and S do not name the former, just calling him the seneschal of Hereford, synysgal Henford). E notes Llywelyn 'prince of North Wales' with 'certain other Welsh princes' (perhaps the same allies as in the previous annal) taking the three remaining castles in North Wales, Degannwy, Rhuddlan and Holywell (trewphennaun); the Brutiau only say that Llywelyn took Degannwy and Rhuddlan. After this, according to E, they also besieged, took and destroyed the castle of Tafolwern in Caereinion, and Gwenwynwyn took the castle of Carreg Hofa, none of which appears in the Brutiau. Similarly, e24 1213 (=1214) is almost wholly different from the annal for 1214 in the Brutiau, even though it touches on some of the same subjects: King John gathering a great army through fear of the king of the French; the war between the Emperor Otto and the king of the French, and the death of Geoffrey, bishop of St Davids. But the accounts of the campaign in Poitou and Flanders is given in much more detail in the Brutiau. Between the notices of John's gathering of the army and the rout of the Emperor by the king of the French, E has two further items, the first concerning King John placing his kingdom under tribute to the Pope; the second, an erroneous statement of England being placed under the Papal Interdict. This item about the Interdict is a curious error, as E has already noted that the Interdict was imposed in 1208 (e18) and was still in force in 1212 (e22). The Interdict was in fact lifted in 1214 (b1236, c534), which is probably the date given in E’s source.


The annal in E for 1215, e25 1214 (=1215), has many items in common with the second, greater part of b1236 (following ubi postmodum crucis signaculo se insigniuit, 'there a little later he marked himself with the sign of the cross', i.e. he took the cross, he became a crusader), and with the annals for 1215 in the Brutiau. The Brutiau, however, provide much more detail on these common items than B or E. B, E, and the Brutiau all note that the king took the cross, but the Brutiau only do this after a long preamble about the grievances of the nobility and the clergy, and the king's refusal to do anything about it. E then notes the rising of the nobles and their taking London, which the Brutiau also note, but E says, 'with many other castles' (cum aliis pluribus castellis). B remarks that the discord between the northern barons and the king was prophesied by Merlin, and that the Welsh were the confederates of the northern barons. The Brutiau say Llywelyn took Shrewsbury; E adds that he also took the castles of Montgomery and Cymaron. B, E and the Brutiau all note Maelgwn ap Rhys' conquest of Dyfed, but all have a slightly different account. B says it was Maelgwn with the two sons of Gruffudd and gives a specific date, the eve of the feast of the Ascension (in 1215, 27 May); E says it was the princes of South Wales with Maelgwn; while the Brutiau say it was Rhys Ieuanc ap Gruffudd and Maelgwn, his uncle, adding, rather vaguely, that Maelgwn ap Gruffudd and his brother, Owain, then went to Llywelyn in Gwynedd. E does not record Rhys Ieuanc's further operations in South Wales, which the Brutiau narrate in some detail, and on which B has a short note, but adds that the bailiffs and burgesses of Carmarthen burned their own town. B and the Brutiau also note the release of Rhys Fychan from the king's prison, and the death of Giles, bishop of Hereford, on both of which E is silent. B has a bare notice of Giles' death, where the Brutiau say that, having been reconciled with the king of England, on his way back from the meeting he died of a severe illness at Gloucester, and that Reginald de Braose, his brother, inherited his patrimony and then took to wife the daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth. B notes that Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, and 'G.' (more probably Gervase, rather than his recently deceased predecessor, Geoffrey), bishop of Menevia, along with many other bishops, went to Rome, but it does not say for what purpose. The Brutiau note Pope Innocent the Third assembling a council from all Christendom in Rome, on the feast of Simon and Jude (the Third Lateran Council). Finally, all three chronicles, B, E and the Brutiau, record Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's campaign in South Wales, in similar terms but with slightly varying details. E places this at 'the end of this year', which accords with B, when the combined Welsh forces arrived at Carmarthen 'on the feast of the Conception' (8 December), and before Christmas the French were expelled from Carmarthen Castle, and with it the castles of Cydweli, Sancti Stephani (Llanstephan), St Clears and Trefdraeth; and on 24 December the Welsh leaders crossed the River Teifi, taking Aberteifi (Cardigan) and Cilgerran on St Stephen's Day (26 December). E agrees with B that Llywelyn entered South Wales with a grand army not long before Christmas, and within three weeks had captured the castles of Carmarthen, St Clears, Llanstephan, Abercorran (Laugharne), Trefdraeth, Aberteifi and Cilgerran, all of which the Welsh destroyed except Aberteifi and Cilgerran. The Brutiau give not only a calendar account of the campaign but also a list of castles taken, as in E. They do not say exactly when the campaign occurred (just 'in that year'), but they say Carmarthen was surrendered to the Welsh after four days ('on the fifth day'), and thereupon Llanstephan, St Clears and Talycharn (Laugharne) were thrown down. On the eve of the feast of Thomas the Apostle (21 December), they say, the Welsh forces came to Ceredigion and took Emlyn, subjected Cemaes and took Trefdraeth, which castle they also razed. The garrison at Aberteifi surrendered on the feast day of Stephen Martyr (26 December); and that of Cilgerran on the feast day of John the Evangelist (27 December). Following this, the Brutiau give a roll of honour of the Welsh princes involved in the campaign (of whom B gives a precis at the beginning of its note on the campaign), and then a checklist of the castles taken: Seinhenydd, Cydweli, Carmarthen, Llanstephan, St Clears, Talycharn (Laugharne), Trefdraeth, Aberteifi and Cilgerran. Only the Brutiau list Seinhynydd as one of the castles taken (it isn't mentioned in their foregoing account of the campaign and seems to recall a detail of Rhys Ieuanc's campaign narrated earlier), and only B and the Brutiau mention Cydweli, and the latter only in their supplementary checklist. It may be significant that E calls Laugharne by its older Welsh name, Abercorran, while the Brutiau call it by its later Welsh name, Talycharn. At the end of its annal for 1214–15, B has a rather awkward reference to the lifting of the Papal Interdict (July 1214) 'and the arising of the quarrel between the kings (reges) and the barons that was aforementioned' (ut predictum est; possibly 'as was foretold', i.e. by Merlin). C also has an annal that covers events of both 1214 and 1215 (c534), noting the lifting of the Interdict (July 1214), the death of Geoffrey, bishop of Menevia (1214), King John crossing to Poitou (February 1214), the consecration of Gervase, Geoffrey's successor at St Davids (June 1215), Llywelyn's capture of Carmarthen, Cardigan (sic) and Cilgerran (which, as we have seen, the other chronicles place in December 1215), and finally a note on the battle of Bouvines (27 July 1214; none of the chronicles give the name of this battle). This reversion to an event of 1214 may indicate a retrospective addition to the other items C has for 1214–15.


There is a closer correspondence between the annal in E for 1216 (e26 1215) and the annal in the Brutiau for that year in giving an account of the allotment of lands by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth to his Welsh allies, so that E could be quite similar to the Latin original from which the Brutiau were translated. However, even here some minor variations should be noted. E says this took place at Aberteifi whereas the Brutiau state it was at Aberdyfi, and E notes that it was an admittedly unequal division (Diuisa est terra in tribus partibus licet inequalibus). In King John's final onslaught on Wales, after the Welsh refused to help him against Prince Louis, E says he burned and destroyed Clun (Coluin) and Oswestry, whereas the Brutiau note only that he burned the latter. E describes the events surrounding King John's death and burial in considerably less detail than the Brutiau, but calls Wulfstan, next to whose sepulchre at Worcester the king was buried, gloriosus confessor, 'glorious confessor'. E and the Brutiau describe in similar terms Llywelyn ab Iorwerth driving Gwenwynwyn ab Owain out of Powys after the latter had gone over to King John, but B alone notes Gwenwynwyn's death later that same year.[22] In its item on the death of Hywel ap Gruffud ap Cynan (also noted in B and the Brutiau), E truncates his name to Hywel ap Cynan.


In its annal for 1217 (e27 1216), E has an account of Llywelyn's campaign against Reginald de Braose, and Prince Louis receiving absolution from the papal legate and leaving England. These two items correspond to two of the items in the Brutiau for 1217, the item on Llywelyn's campaign being about the fifth item and that on Louis' departure being the sixth of eight items in all, the Brutiau additionally noting William Marshal's siege of Caerleon (item seven) and Rhys Gryg overthrowing Seinhenydd and driving away the English from that area (item eight). The first three items in the Brutiau all concern the final moves in the barons' war, the fourth notes Rhys ap Gruffudd and his brother, Owain, rising up in Builth against Reginald de Braose, who had made peace with the king. But the account of Llywelyn's campaign in E is substantially different to that in the Brutiau: E makes no mention of Rhys Ieuanc's part in brokering the peace between Llywelyn and the burgesses of Brecon (Aberodny); nor of Llywelyn coming towards Gower over the Black Mountain and taking the castle of 'Seinhenydd', instead noting Llywelyn's destruction of the castle at Aberthauoe (i.e. Abertawe, Swansea) and his burning of the town.[23] The description of the events at Haverford is also somewhat different in E from that in the Brutiau. E does not mention Rhys ap Gruffudd's part in laying siege to the town, and does not name the bishop of Menevia (Iorwerth, a.k.a. Gervase), and is not as detailed in its description of the terms of the truce as the Brutiau. B notes Llywelyn leading a large army into Gower (b1238 1216 (= 1217)), and, having taken the castle of Abertaui at the first assault, proceeding to attack Rhos with his confederates, Maelgwn and Rhys paruo, and the sons of Gruffudd 'and others'. B says that, on the advice of the community and of Bishop Gervase, twenty-four English (anglici) hostages were given and soon after exchanged for a thousand marks; but it adds that this exchange harmed (nocuit) rather than helped (profuit) the Welsh. Comparing the various accounts in B, E and the Brutiau, it seems that the agreement was that if the Flemings (or 'English') of Rhos were unable to redeem the hostages for a thousand marks (E adds if they didn't receive help from the king or the earl), they would acknowledge Llywelyn ab Iorwerth as their overlord, and surrender the land and castle to him. But it appears that the ransom was paid and the Flemings therefore escaped being subject to Llywelyn, which perhaps explains B’s comment that the hostage deal  'harmed rather than helped'. The terse statement in C (c538) Lewelinus fuit Woluedale in Ros ('Llywelyn was at Wolfsdale in Rhos') may refer to these events.


In commencing its account of the departure of Prince Louis from England E states that this was 'in the following autumn', whereas the Brutiau simply say 'in the meantime'. E, here, could possibly be a severely abbreviated version of the Latin source of the Brutiau. E does not mention the peace negotiations, the exchange of prisoners, or the large sum of money promised to Louis specified in the Brutiau; and in saying Louis was 'absolved' by the papal legate it does not say from what he was absolved (the sentence of excommunication according to the Brutiau).


At this point, E jumps from 1217 to 1228. The reason for omitting these years is unclear, as the Brutiau have substantial annals for 1218 to 1227, full of incidents involving Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Rhys Ieuanc (who broke with Llywelyn over Carmarthen castle in 1221, and who died in 1222 at Strata Florida), John de Braose (who married a daughter of Llywelyn in 1219, and who was permitted by his father-in-law to repair Swansea castle in 1221), Owain ap Gruffudd and Maelgwn ap Rhys (who shared Rhys Ieuanc's lands on his death), William Marshal (who brought a fleet from Ireland and took Cardigan and Carmarthen castles in 1223, and rebuilt the castle at Cilgerran),[24] Rhys Gryg (who burned Cydweli in 1223, and who was captured by his son, Rhys Fychen, in 1227 but released by him in return for Landovery castle), and Maredudd ap Rhys (archdeacon of Ceredigion, who died at Lampeter in the church of St Mary and was buried next to his father, the Lord Rhys, at St Davids; also noted in c547). B and C have a few corresponding annals, but neither have annals for 1218, and B has no annals for 1219, 1221, or the years 1225 to 1227. When E resumes with an annal for 1228–9 (e28), its annal still looks similar, although not identical, to the annals in the Brutiau for 1228 and 1229. Their annal for 1229 is simply a note on the death of Iorwerth, that is Gervase, bishop of Menevia, who died in January 1229, and which E has included as the last item in its annal for 1228, perhaps reckoning on an Annunciation year, March to March. The following annal for 1230, e29, is very similar to the first item in the Brutiau for that year.[25]


As the above survey shows, the relationship between E and the Brutiau up to 1230 is complex. To summarize:


Annals in E parallel or very similar to those in the Brutiau:

e1 1190 (except P, R, S note the death of Gwenllian ap Rhys);

e2 1191 (except P, R, S note the solar eclipse, and death of Owain ap Rhys at Strata Florida);

e4 1193 (except P, R, S note Rhodri ab Owain taking and losing Anglesey, and Maelgwn ap Rhys breaching Ystrad Meurig castle);

e6 1195 (P, R, S almost verbatim, but name Cymaron castle);

e7 1196 (except P, R, S note the death of the bishop of Bangor);

e8 1197 (but the relationship between E and P, R and S is complex);

e9 1198 (except P, R, S note the community of Cwm-hir going to Cymer, and the youngest sons of the Lord Rhys taking Dinefwr; and P, R note the death of Peter, bishop of Menevia);[26]

e10 1199 (P, R, S almost verbatim, except domum / kastell);

e11 1200 (except P, R, S note the death of Gruffudd ap Cynan ab Owain at Aberconwy, and the building of Llynegwestl in Iâl);

e12 1201 (except P, R, S note the community of Strata Florida going to the new church, and an earthquake in Jerusalem);

e13 1202 (except P, R, S note Llywelyn's campaigns in Powys against 'hostile' Gwenwynwyn, and Llandovery taken by Rhys Ieuanc);

e14 1203 (exept P, R, S note that Llywelyn expelled Dafydd ab Owain from Gwynedd, Llandovery and Llangadog taken by Gwenwynwyn and Maelgwn, and Maelgwn completes Dineirth);

e15 1204 (P, R, S almost verbatim, but see analysis above);

e16/17 1205/1206 (=1205 P, R, S, except noting the genealogy of Susana ferch Hywel);

e19 1208 (1208–1209 P, R, S; but E gives precise date, and references Rhys Gryg);

e22 1211 (1211–1212, 1212–1212 P, R verbatim, but items in different order);

e26 1215 (=1216 P, R, S close parallel);

e29 1230 (P, R, S almost verbatim, except noting the deaths of William Canton of Cemaes and Llywelyn ap Maelgwn Ieuanc in Gwynedd, buried at Aberconwy).


Annals in the Brutiau wholly or largely without close parallels in E:

1192 (E has no equivalent);

1194 (except noting Rhys being seized by his sons, e5);

1206 (E has no equivalent);

1207–1208 (except noting the Interdict, William de Braose, Gwenwynwyn seized, and Llywelyn in Powys, e18);

1209–1210 (E is almost wholly dissimilar, e20);

1210–1211 (E has some similar details, e21);

1211–1212 (except for noting the hanging of Rhys ap Maelgwn, e22);

1213 (E has a very few similar details, e23);

1214 (E is almost wholly dissimilar, except for noting the death of Geoffrey, bishop of Menevia, e24);

1217 (E is almost wholly dissimilar, e27);

1228 (E is almost wholly dissimilar, except for noting the death of Gervase, bishop of Menevia, e28).


From their annal for 1231 (b1253/e30), the annals in E are close parallels of those in B, except where B has appended items copied from the Winchester–Waverley chronicles.  In contrast to the first segment of E (1190–1216 (= 1217)) where Rhys ap Gruffudd and his descendants are prominent, the primary focus of the second segement (1228–1249) is on Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and his sons, Gruffudd and Dafydd, while the descendants of the Lord Rhys are mostly noted in obituaries.[27] The obituaries for Gruffudd ap Llywelyn and his brother, Dafydd, require special notice as, in both instances (c564, c566), C records these in the annal before those in B and E (b1265/e42, b1267/e44). This is probably the consequence of C working to an Annunciation year (25 March to 24 March), while B and E are working to a Nativity calendar (25 December to 24 December). Gruffudd ap Llywelyn fell to his death on 1 March 1244, so C records this in its year corresponding to 1243; similarly, Dafydd ap Llywelyn died in February 1246, so C records this in its annal corresponding to 1245.


Although B and E are close parallels, they both have errors and/or variations in wording:


1231: b1253, e30. B has de causis where E has the improbable decanis; B has omitted hominibus.


(B, C and E have no annals for 1232).


1233: b1254, e31. B has castellum de Radenor where E has castrum de radennouer; E has omitted est vnde after orta, and B has multis ex suis viris where E has multis de suis; B has vocabatur against E vocatur; B has castellhithoet (or read castellhichoet?) where E has castelhychoet.


E frequently inserts eodem anno ('in the same year') as a formula for subsidiary items in the same annal, and the first instance of this is in e31; found infrequently in B (b1257 1236; b1263 1242; b1267 1246).[28]


1234: b1255, e32. B has vir probus et potens in armis where E has simply vir potens in armis; B has traderent illum in bello linquentes where E has tradiderent illum in bello relinquentes; B has nil de factis, E has nichil de factis; B has the erroneous episcopus meneviam where E has apud meneviam; B omits dominus before lewelinus, and has terre quod vocatur llyen while E has terre sue quod uocatur thleyn.


1235: b1256, e33. B has fama where E has famaque; B has Rex anglie where E has eodem anno henricus rex anglie; B has comitibus baronibus where E has comitibus et baronibus.


1236: b1257, e34. B has Gwenllian and edneveth vechan ( or read ednevech?) where E has Gwenthlian and ednech vachan; B has fecit maredut where E has fecit cogi mareduch. B has an additional obituary notice for owinus filius maredut filii Roberti de kedeweighc.


1237: b1258, e35. E has eodem anno obiit Iohannes comes cestrie gener suus while B adds et kewericus domini Resi magni filius. E notes the arrival in England of the papal legate, Otto; also noted in C, but not in B.


1238: b1259, e36. B has the specific date In crastino sancti luce ewangeliste not given in E.


1239: b1260, e37. (Almost identical).


1240: b1261, e38. B adds terminos suos bellico funiculo dilatabat; E omits Iohannis from Iohanna filia Iohannis regis anglie; B has castellum de Kardigan where E has castrum de kardigan.


1241: b1262, e39. B has magna multitudine where E has maxima multitudine. E has uocando apud londoniam where B has necando usque londoniam. B has gwennunwen where E has gwennainun.


1242: b1263, e40. B has omitted obiit either before or after Grifinus filius maredut.


1243: b1264, e41. (Almost identical; except E does not have the additional note of the name of the daughter born to Eleanor, and B is erroneous in calling her Margaret).


1244: b1265, e42. B has exceptis qui in municionibus et castellis where E has exceptis hiis qui erant in municionibus et castellis. B has wennunwen where E has wenainun.


1245: b1266, e43. B has henricus rex omnes walenses subiugare volens where E has henricus rex anglie omnes walenses sibi subiugare uolens; B has its customary excercitu where E has the normal exercitu; B has de ganiuye (i.e. Degannwy) where E has ganneu; B has et firmato ibi castello in angliam rediit where E has et firmato ibidem castello in angliam uenit.[29]


1246: b1267, e44. B has sepulture traditur apud aberconuy where E has sepulture traditur iuxta patrem suum apud aberconu; B has disponente deo where E has dissponente domino; B has Geneurglin et hyscoid where E has Geneuerglyn et Hischoeth.


Analysis shows that B has 30 errors, omissions or variations while E has 20. Of these B has three outright errors against one in E, while B has eleven omissions against four in E. B has one specific date (b1259) and three additional items (b1257, b1258, b1261) not in E. Although E contains some scribal errors, the general impression is that it is a more accurate reflection of the source of these annals than B.


Throughout this period (1231 to 1247), the Brutiau contain close parallels to B and E under the years 1235, 1237, 1238, 1241, 1242, 1244, 1245, 1246 (first half of b1267/e44), 1247 (E only).[30]


B has an empty annal for 1247 (b1268), but E has an annal concerning the same events as in the Brutiau: the death of Hywel ab Ednyfed, bishop of St Asaph, at Oxford; an earthquake; and the death of Anselm, bishop of Menevia. The Brutiau have these in a different order: the death of Hywel, the death of Anselm, and then the earthquake. E is more specific than the Brutiau about Hywel's end, saying he died amongst the Dominicans in Oxford (apud Oxoniam inter fratres predicatores) and that he was buried in their church with due veneration. But the Brutiau say Anselm died in March (and supply his by-name, vras, 'the Fat'), and give a very precise date and time of day of the earthquake ('about vesper-time on the 20th day of February'); C, c568, also gives the date, but in a different form: .xi. kl. martii.


B again has an empty annal for 1248 (b1269), and E has no annal for this year. The final annal in E, before it jumps to 1254, is marked as '1248' (e46) but is in fact for an event of 1249, the capture of Damietta by Louis IX of France, where E again uses the formula dissponente domino (see also e44) but is otherwise identical to b1270. The Brutiau have a lengthier corresponding annal that first notes the capture of Damietta (June 1249) and then the capture of Louis by the Saracens (March 1250) and the consequential loss of Damietta (May 1250). The Brutiau's annal stated as 1250 is in fact for an event of 1249, the death of 'the king of Scotland' (Alexander II, who died in July 1249).


After the lacuna at 1217–18, C has an annal which starts with an account of the capture of Damietta by the crusaders in November of 1219 (c539; also noted in the Brutiau, with the same number of reported casualties amongst the inhabitants) with which is synchronised the death of William Marshal the Elder (14 May 1219; in b1241 1219 (= 1220); not noted in the Brutiau). This is the first of a series of annals recording events connected with the Marshal earls of Pembroke. William's son, William the Younger, is noted as arriving at St Davids from Ireland in 1223 when he captured Cardigan and Carmarthen (c543); his further exploits in Ireland (c544) and his service in France (c550), and his death in 1231 (c551). His successor, his brother, Richard Marshal, is recorded besieging Carmarthen castle in 1233 (c554); and Richard's successor, a third brother, Gilbert's marriage to the sister of the King of Scots (Marjorie, daughter of William the Lion) in 1235 (c555). A fourth brother, Walter, is recorded taking the honours of Carmarthen for Gilbert in 1240, but Gilbert died in July 1241 (c562) and Walter succeeded to the earldom that October ('about the feast of SS Simon and Jude' i.e. 28 October; c562). Walter is recorded in Haverford in 1244 (c565), and his death on 24 November 1245 is noted (c566). The fifth and last son of William Marshal the Elder, Anselm, died within a month of Walter, before he could be invested with the earldom, and is not noted in C. The five Marshal brothers died without legitimate male heirs, so the line came to an end (b1266 1245 says conquieruerunt heredes willielmi marescalli in pace, 'the heirs of William Marshal came peacefully to an end'). C alone notes the Marshal patrimony being divided between the earl's three daughters in 1248 (c569).[31] The Pembrokeshire interest is very strong in C. St Davids is the focus of the chronicle, which continues to record the succession of bishops of Menevia from the death of Gervase in 1229 (c549) to the consecration of Thomas in 1248 (not recorded in B or E). As we have seen, William Marshal the Younger's visit to St Davids is noted (c543), and his taking of Cardigan and Carmarthen. The death of Maredudd ap Rhys, archdeacon of Cardigan, is recorded (c547), and that of Rhys Gryg at Carmarthen (c552). Carmarthen is noted as under siege by Richard Marshal (c554), and the honours of Carmarthen are taken by Walter Marshal for his brother, Gilbert (c561). Carmarthen is burnt by Dafydd ap Llywelyn in 1243 (c564). Haverford is mentioned in connection with Walter Marshal in 1244 (c565). Carmarthen is looted by Maredudd ap Rhys Gryg in 1245 (c566); and, after an earthquake which damages part of the church on 19 February 1247, there is a robbery at St Davids described in some dramatic detail (c568). C also notes that the bridge at Carmarthen was destroyed by Richard Marshal and the Welsh in 1233 (c554) and, again, by build-up of ice, probably in 1250 (c571). Interest in the descendants of Rhys ap Gruffudd is not as strong as in B and E. The death of the archdeacon of Cardigan, Maredudd ap Rhys, is noted (c547), as are the deaths of Maelgwn ap Rhys (c550) and Rhys Gryg (c552). Cynan ap Hywel Sais is noted in confederation with William Marshal the Younger, who gives all the land of Cardigan up to Afon Aeron into Cynan's custody; and Maredudd ap Rhys Gryg is noted looting Carmarthen in 1245 (c566).[32] Still slighter is the interest in Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and his sons. Llywelyn, who first appears in C in 1211 (c531), is noted taking Carmarthen, Cardigan and Cilgerran in 1215 (c534), and being at Wolfsdale in Rhos, probably in 1217 (c538). Thereafter, there are only notes of Llywelyn burning Haverford (c540), his war with Henry III in 1228 (c548), and his death in 1240 (559). Llywelyn's sons, Gruffudd and Dafydd, and their deaths, are noted in c563 (1242), c564 (1243–4) and 1245–6 (c566).


C does not wholly ignore events further afield, but these are confined to notices of events in the Holy Land involving Louis VIII of France (c539, c541) Louis IX (c570, c572), and the Emperor Frederick II (c563); of the loss of Picardy (c544), and of Henry III of England's visits to the Continent (c550, c563, c564); and of the papal legate, Otto, coming to England (c557). But it is the very parochialism of C that is a stamp of its authenticity as an active chronicle: the collapse of the new church tower at St Davids (c540), precisely dated to the Monday before the feast of St Martin (9 November 1220); the establishment of the first precentor at Menevia, and the start of building the new church of St Thomas at Haverford (c545); and Brother Anianus preaching the crusade in West Wales (c556).



Henry Gough-Cooper, September 2021



Abbreviations and references




B: The Welsh-Latin Breviate chronicle, London, National Archives MS E164/1, pp. 2–26 (see Gough-Cooper 2015a).


C: The Welsh-Latin Cottonian chronicle, London, British Library Cotton MS Domition A.1 folios 138r–155r (see Gough-Cooper 2015b).


D: The Cronica ante aduentum domini, Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3514, pp. 523–528 (see Gough-Cooper 2015c).


E: The Cronicon de Wallia, Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3514, pp. 507–519 (see Gough-Cooper 2016).


HBC: see Fryde, Greenway et al. 2003.


HD: see Cheney & Jones 2004.


ODNB: The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.


OHE (Poole): see Poole 1954.


OHE (Powicke): see Powicke 1962.


P: The Welsh vernacular chronicle, Peniarth 20 version (see Jones 1941, 1952).


R: The Welsh vernacular chronicle, Red Book of Hergest version (see Jones 1954).


Runciman HC3: see Runciman 1954.


S: The Welsh vernacular chronicle, Brenhinedd y Saesson version (see Jones 1971)


Brutiau: see P, R & S.




Bradbury, J. (1997) Philip Augustus: King of France, 1180-1223, London: Longman.


Cheney, C.R. (1948) King John and the Papal Interdict, Manchester: Manchester University Press.


Cheney, C.R. (ed), Jones, M. (rev.) (2004) A Handbook of Dates: For students of British History, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks No.4, Cambridge: Royal Historical Society.


Church, S.D. (2003) King John: new interpretations, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer.


Duby, G (1973) Le Dimanche de Bouvines, Paris; trans. Tihanyi, C. (1990) The Legend of Bouvines, Cambridge: Polity Press in association with Basil Blackwell.


Dumville, D.M. (1977/8) ‘The Welsh Latin Annals’, Studia Celtica 12/13, Cardiff: University of Wales Press.


Fryde, E. B., Greenway, D. E., Porter S., and Roy, I. (eds.) (2003) Handbook of British Chronology, Cambridge: Royal Historical Society.


Gough-Cooper, H. W. (ed.) (2015a) Annales Cambriae: The B Text, from London, National Archives MS E164.1, pp. 2–26, <>


Gough-Cooper, H. W. (ed.) (2015b) Annales Cambriae: The C Text, from British Library Cotton MS Domitian A. i. ff. 138r–155r, <>


Gough-Cooper, H. W. (ed.) (2015c) Annales Cambriae: The D Text, from Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3514, pp. 523–528,



Gough-Cooper, H. W. (ed.) (2016) Annales Cambriae: The E Text, from Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3514, pp. 507–19, <>


Gough-Cooper, H. W. (2018) 'Decennovenal Reason and Unreason in the C-Text of Annales Cambriae' in Kooper, E. and Levelt S. (eds), The Medieval Chronicle 11, Brill, Leiden, 195–212.


Hughes, K. (1980) 'The Welsh Latin chronicles: Annales Cambriae and related texts' in K. Hughes, Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages, Rowman and Littlefield: The Boydell Press.


Jackson, P. (2009) The Seventh Crusade: sources and documents, 1244-1254, Farnham: Ashgate.


Jones, T. (1941) Brut y Tywysogyon, Peniarth MS. 20, Cardiff: University of Wales Press.


Jones, T. (1946) 'Cronica de Wallia and other Documents from Exeter Cathedral Library MS. 3514', Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, XII, parts i-iii.


Jones, T. (1952) Brut y tywysogyon, or, The chronicle of the princes: Peniarth MS. 20 version, Cardiff, University of Wales Press.


Jones, T. (1954) Brut y tywysogyon: or The chronicle of the princes; Red Book of Hergest version, Cardiff: University of Wales Press.


Jones, T. (1971) Brenhinedd y Saesson, or The Kings of the Saxons: BM Cotton MS Cleopatra B v, and The Black Book of Basingwerk, NLW MS. 7006, Cardiff: University of Wales Press.


Leclercq, H. (1910) ‘Fourth Lateran Council (1215)’, The Catholic Encyclopedia, New York: The Encyclopedia Press, Inc.


Liebermann, F. (1879) Ungedruckte Anglo-Normanische Geschichtsquellen, Strassburg, Karl J. Trübner.


Lloyd, J. E. (1912) A History of Wales: From the earliest times to the Edwardian Conquest, 2 vols., London: Longmans, Green & Co.


Luard, H. R. (1864) Annales Monastici, vol. i, Rolls Series 36, London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.


Luard, H. R. (1865) Annales Monastici, vol. ii, Rolls Series 36, London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.


Maund, K. (2006) The Welsh Kings, Stroud: Tempus.


Miller, F. P., Vandome, A. F., and McBrewster, J. (2010), Fourth Council of the Lateran, Saarbrücken: VDM.


Moorman, J. R. H. (1988) A History of the Franciscan Order: From Its Origins to the Year 1517, New York: Franciscan Institute Publications.


Owen, H. W. and Morgan, R. (2007) Dictionary of the Place-Names of Wales, Ceredigion: Gomer Press.


Oram, R. (2011) Domination and Lordship: Scotland 1070–1230, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


Painter, S. (1949) The reign of King John, Baltimore: Ayer.


Poole, A. L. (1954) Domesday Book to Magna Carta 1087-1216. The Oxford History of England vol. 3, Oxford: Clarendon Press.


Powicke, F. M. (1962) The Thirteenth Century 1216-1307. The Oxford History of England vol. 4, Oxford: Clarendon Press.


Renard, J.-P. (1977) La formation et la désignation des prédicateurs au debut de l’Ordre des Prêcheurs (1215–1237), Fribourg: Imprimerie St-Canisius.


Rickaby, M. C. (2011) Girard d'Athee and the Men from the Touraine: Their Roles under King John. Unpublished doctoral thesis: University of Durham.


Ridgeway H. W. (2004) ‘Henry III (1207–1272)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Runciman, S. (1954) A History of the Crusades. Volume III: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.


Sibly, W. A., Sibly, M. D. (2003) The chronicle of William of Puylaurens: the Albigensian crusade and its aftermath, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer


Stringer, K. (2004) ‘Alexander II (1198–1249)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Titow, J. (1960) ‘Evidence of Weather in the Account Rolls of the Bishopric of Winchester 1209–1350’, Economic History Review 12, 360–407.


Turner, R. V. (2009), King John: England’s Evil King?, Stroud: The History Press.


Walker, R. F. (2005) 'Marshal, William, fifth earl of Pembroke', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press


Wallis, F. (1999) Bede: The Reckoning of Time, Liverpool: University of Liverpool.





[1] Dumville 1977/8, 466. The primary sources are London, National Archives MS E164/1, pp. 2–26 (B); London, British Library Cotton MS Domition A.1 folios 138r–155r (C); and Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3514, pp. 507–519 (E) and pp. 523–528 (D).

[2] Luard 1865, 91.

[3] Henceforth, AD dates in italics are the stated years in the MS. but not necessarily the years in which the events in fact occurred.


[4] The third in the group, c537, notes events from March 1215 to Autumn 1217.

[5] Titow 1960.

[6] See Jones 1952, 83.

[7] See Jones 1952, 86.

[8] c510 is an empty annal.

[9] The Annals of Margam also erroneously record Arthur's death under the annal for 1204 (Luard 1864, 27).

[10] B, C, E, P and S all note the death of Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, but displaced by a year: Baldwin died in November 1190.

[11] 15 August

[12] P: y diengis maelgwn vab rys o garchar arglwyd brycheinnyawc; S: y dienghis Maelgwn ap Rys o garchar arglwyd Brecheinoc.

[13] E has a parallel of these (e5): Resus Griffíní filius a filíís suís captus est et incarceratus.

[14] Gough-Cooper 2018.

[15] Hughes 1980, 78.

[16] Rhys ap Gruffudd appears in E's annals for 1190, 1192 (1191), 1194, 1195, 1196, and 1197; Gruffudd ap Rhys in 1197, 1198, 1199, 1200, and 1201; Rhys Gryg in 1195, 1212 (1213), and 1215 (1216); Maredudd ap Rhys in 1195 and 1201; Maelgwn ap Rhys in 1193,1197, 1198, 1199, 1200, 1204, 1211 (1212), 1214 (1215), and 1215 (1216); Hywel Sais in 1193 and 1204. There are also references to Gruffudd's sons, Rhys Ieuanc and Owain, in 1203 (Rhys), 1204, 1207 (1208), 1212 (1213) and 1215 (1216). B has parallels of some of these right through to its annal for 1214–15 (b1236 1214), but C's interest lapses after the death of Gruffudd ap Rhys in 1201 (c522) and is only briefly revived in recording the deaths of Maelgwn ap Rhys in 1231 (c550) and Rhys Gryg in 1232 (c552).

[17] Mostyn MS. 143, dinevwr.

[18] Mostyn MS. 159 has the still further corrupted kyrialic. E has a scribal error tidri for tidei (i.e. Tideus), where the scribe has misread e in their exemplar for a 2-form 'r'.

[19] Erroneously, resi in the MS.

[20] In 1209, Pentecost Sunday fell on 17 May. As Trinity Sunday fell within the 'octave' of Pentecost on 24 May, this perhaps indicates the attack occurred on the following Sunday, 31 May.

[21] The greater part of the epitaph is a paraphrase of The Book of Wisdom, cap. 4, v. 11: Raptus est ne malitia mutaret intellectum ejus, aut ne fictio deciperet animam illius. 'He was taken away, lest wickedness should alter his understanding, or deceit beguile his soul'.

[22] The name Gwenwynwyn appears in E in a variety of forms: 1196, 1197, Wenoinun; 1197, Wenainun; 1198, Wenoinun, Weneinun; 1207, Gwenoinuyn, Gwennainun; 1212, Wenoynoin, Gwenoynun; 1215, Gwenoinun; 1228, Wenainun; 1241, Gwennainun; 1244, Wenainun. Forms with the initial 'G' only start to appear in the thirteenth century. B alone notes Gwenwynwyn's death in 1216 (b1237 1215 = 1216).

[23] Lloyd 1912, ii, 652, identifies 'Seinhenydd' with Swansea. But the account in the Brutiau has Reginald and William de Braose parlaying with Llywelyn and surrendering the castle of 'Seinhynedd' which Llywelyn then entrusts to Rhys Gryg. This does not seem to correspond to the utter destruction of the castle and the burning of the town reported in E (solotenus destrui fecit uillamque comburi).

[24] The Brutiau recount that William Marshal was summoned to the king, and there was an inconclusive meeting at Ludlow between the earl and Llywelyn ab Iorwerth. The earl's route back to his lands was blocked by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn and Rhys Gryg at Carnwyllion, and Llywelyn and his forces came to Mabudryd to await news of his men and the earl approaching, but there the account ends with no indication of the outcome.

[25] P mentions a tempest as well as a pestilence, but the tempest is not in R or S.

[26] S (BL Cotton MS. Cleopatra B. 5) breaks off in the middle of the annal for 1198. The continuation in the Black Book of Basingwerk (NLW MS. 7006) does not include the obituary for Peter, bishop of Menevia.

[27] Llywelyn ab Iorwerth is noted in the annals for 1228, 1231, 1233, 1234, 1236, 1237, 1238, 1239 and 1240; Dafydd ap Llywelyn in those for 1238, 1239, 1240, 1241, 1244 and 1246; Gruffudd ap Llywelyn in those for 1239, 1241 and 1244. Gruffudd's sons, Llywelyn's grandsons, are noted in the annal for 1246. Maelgwn ap Rhys is noted in the annal for 1231 (but not his death that year); Rhys Gryg in 1234; Owain ap Gruffudd ap Rhys in 1235; Gwenllian ferch Rhys in 1236; Maelgwn ap Maelgwn ap Rhys in 1236, 1242 and 1246; Maredudd ap Owain ap Gruffudd in 1236; Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Rhys in 1242; Rhys ap Rhys Gryg in 1244.

[28] This last for an item in B not in E.

[29] This variation (rediit / uenit) suggests the source of E may have been compiled somewhere in England.

[30] B continues to show parallels with the Brutiau for the years 1251–1256.

[31] This is not accurate: the Marshal inheritance was subsequently divided between the representatives of five sisters and co-heiresses. See Walker 2005.

[32] Maredudd ap Rhys Gryg next appears in C in its annal for 1257 (c578), but his death in 1271 goes unrecorded by both B and C. The last annal in E is for 1266.

Annales Cambriae B, C and E in Parallel, from AD 1190 to AD 1250

B(reviate chronicle)

C(ottonian chronicle)

E ('Cronicon de Wallia')

[b1212 1190] Anus m·c· xc · In dewet occisí sunt a francís nobiles Wallenses ·scilicet· Resus ·filius· rederchet trahaír ·filius· kedíworet Grifinus filíus elidir ·

[c511] Annus. Ricardus rex anglieet philippus rex francie circa festum beati iohannis baptiste cum multis armatorum milibus iter uersus terram sanctam arripuerunt .[1]

[e1 1190] Annus . mus . cus . nonagesímus ab íncarnaci one domíní . In hoc anno Rícardus Anglíe et philippus gallorum rex cum ínmensa multítudine Comítum et baronum ierosolimam perrexerunt . Secum ducentes Cantuariensum Archíepiscopum . nomine baldewínum .[2] In hoc anno . Resus gríffíní filíus . castellum operatus est ín Kedewellẏ .

[b1213 1191] Anus ·m·c·xci · Rex francíe philippus cíuítatem accharon obsedít · nam Rícardus rex anglíe ad ciprum ínsulam diuertít eamque dicioní sue rege illius capto subiecít inde ad obsidío nem[3] accharon leto wltu uenít · quo adueníente christi ani audaciores et forciores effectí cíuítatem obsessam díuíno nutu ceperunt et ín ea ·víí· mílibus paganorum occísis ·[4] Baldewínus cantuariensis archiepiscopus feliciter ín christo obiit et ín cíuítate accharon cum honore debito a christianís sepultus ín domino quiescít ·[5] Resus filíus grifíní castellum de Newer die asumpcionis sancte marie fortí manu francís expulsís cepit ·[6]

[c512] Annus. Philippus rex cíuítatem accaron obsedit . nam Ricardus rex iter ad cyprum diuerterat et eam cepit . et pecuníam infinítam inuenít in ea . deínde ad obsidionem prefate ciuítatis uenít . et in ea non multum post deo uolente ceperunt . viim . paganorum . quos in ea trucidauerunt . Baldwinus archiepiscopus obiit . cui successit [space left for name] . Resus filius grifut castellum de Kemmer[7] die assumptionis sancte marie cepit .

[e2 1191] Annus mus . cus . nonagesímus primus . In hoc anno griffínus de maillor . powisensium prínceps largissímus ínterfectus est . In eodem anno guuẏon bangorensis episcopus obiit . Baldeuuínus cantuariensis Archíepiscopus ín ierosolomítana terra dormíuit cum patríbus suís . Eínon de porta :[8] occisus est a fratre suo .

[e3 1192] Annus . mus . cus . nonagesímus iius . Resus Griffíní filíus cepít dẏnneuore .[9]

[b1214 1192] Anus ·m c·xcii · Walenses de diwet duce Grifíno filio resi vi ceperunt castellum de llanwaden · Resus filius· Grifiní · malgonum filium suum a carcere Willelmi de breusa · liberauít Willelmo ínuíto · Resus Grifíni filíus post liberacionem mailgoní filíi sui ad obsidíonem abertawi pocenter diuertít cumque per decem ebdomadas oppidum obsedisset et opidanos fere fame dedici oní coegisset quodam infortuníoet quadam ínuidía inter filios suos grifinum et mailgonum latenter habita unde francorum vi obsídionem deseruít quibusdam familiarium suorum in precedenti díe submersís ·

[c513] Annus. Resus filius grifut castrum de sweynese per . x . ebdomadas obsedit . sed tamen submersis ibidem quibus dam de suís obsidionem deseruít .

[b1215 1193] Anus ·m·c·xciii · Grifinus troẏt occísus est · Iohannes filíus elidír obiit · Círca festum sancti ciricíí familiares hoeli seís oppidum wiz nocturno dolo et ínsidíís cuiusdam traditorís deintus ceperunt · at flandrenses et francí de penbroc predicti oppidí capcionem dolentes oppidum lanwaden quod in hoeli pocestate erat ínpugnauerun t · sed eo non habito cum opprobrío domum reuersi sunt (.) Tudur filíus pret ín oppido occisus est quí fuít filius putatiuus resi · Item hoelus et mailgonus filíí resí oppídum lanwadan diruerunt · quod cum flandrenses et francí de penbroc audissent cum íngentí armatorum copía uenerunt ín quorum aduentu walenses stupefacci ín tres partes mox díuísi sunt · quorum vna pars oppidum semírutum intrauít . altera uero ecclesiam non orandi causa sed pocius refugium petendí adíuít · Tercia uero magís pedibus quam ecclesie uel oppidí confísa tutamíní nemorís petíuít abdíta · quam franci lupíno more ínsecutí sunt walenses eorum gladíís íuxta Rutnant numero ·lx· perímuntur .

[c514] Annus. Hoelus filius Resi castrum de villa viech dolo cepit . et castrum de lanamdeuery destruxit . et plures de suís ibidem occisi sunt .

[e4 1193] Annus . mus . cus . nonagesímus . iiius . In hoc anno Ricardus rex Anglie de Ierosolímís rediens a quodam duce tentus atque Imperatorís custodíe delegatus carcerí mancípatur . Cuius absolucionis obtentu míra quedam exactíoet incomparabilis pecuníarum collectío per totam Angliam noscítur ínstítuta : adeo ut omnis monachiet ecclesiastíci uírí quicquíd ín auroet argento uídebantur habere tam ín ecclesíarum utensilibus . quam ín alíís rebus integraliter reddere cogebantur . Regíne et Regis offícíalibus conseruandum . In hoc etiam anno howel seẏs castellum gwis dolo cepit (.) Idemque howel sencíens oppida sua nullatenus conseruanda nísí alíquod eorum terratenus dissíparet deliberauít eíus eíusdemque fratrís maílgun . scilicet excercitibus [10] coadunatís castellum de lanhuwadeín destruere . quo comperto : flandrenses ad díem statutum con uenerunt apud prefatum castellum ín predictos fratres ex insperato írruentes . eorumque homínes ín fugam uercentes haut mínímam stragem fecerunt . sed paulo post : wallenses ín unum collectí sepe díctum castellum ad arbitrium suum solotenus destruxerunt . In eodem anno Anaraut filius eẏnaun . presentís seculí ambíci one ductus : duos fratres suos . madauc . scilicet et howel tenuít dolo et occulis tantum príuauít .

[b1216 1194] Anus ·m·cxcíííí · Resus filíus bledricí obiit · hoelus seís nobiles flandrenses apud peuluníauc occidít · mailgonus resi filíus · dauid filium mauricíí et tanchardum congnomento monachum nobilissímos milites occidít Resus filíus grífini a filíis suís hoeloet mailgono captus est · dauid filius owíní a lewelíno filio Iorwert expulsus est ·

[c515] Annus. Ricardus rex solutus de carcere imper atoris uenít in angliam .[11] Resus filius grifut a filíís suis captus est .

[e5 1194] Annus mus . cus . nonagesímus . iiiius . Resus Griffíní filius a filíís suís captus est et incarceratus .

[b1217 1195] Annus ·m·cxcv · Rodri filíus owini obiit ·[12] Rogerus de mortuo mari castellum cameron firmauít · flandrenses castellum de Wiz díe pentecostes ceperunt · Resus filius Grifíni duos filios suos maredut et resum par(u)um cepít · Willelmus de breusa · castellum sancti clarí ualida manu cepít et tenuít et ín eo captís hoeli familiaribus ·lx· hoc audiens hoelus castellum newer díruít terram tamen francís ínuitís sibi retínuít

[c516] Annus. Rodri filíus oweyn obiit . Rogerus de mortimer castrum camaron firmauít . Mailgun filius Res dauid filium mauricííet tankardum monachum interfecit . Flandrenses nobiles ab hoelo seys occisi sunt . Willelmus de breusa castrum de sancto claro vi cepit . et . xl . de familia hoeli filii Resi .

[e6 1195] Annus mus . cus . cxus[13] . vus . Rogerus de mortuo mari cum excercítu ad malenẏth uenít . ibíque castellum fecít expulsís duobus[14] catwallaun .[15] In eodem anno . duo filíí Resí . Resus scilicet . et mareduch dolo ceperunt castellum dẏnevr . et castellum de cantref bechan . homíníbus illorum pagorum illis consencíentibus . quí iterum eodem anno a prefato patre suo apud estrathmevrẏch dolo captí sunt et incarceratí . In hoc etiam anno . obiit . botrí[16] filíus oweín .

[b1218 1196] Anus ·m·c xcvi · Resus filíus grifíní Kermerdín combussít · inde excercítum ad herefordíe partes ducens Redenor combussít · militesque · Rogerí de mortuo marí ad modum quadragínta occidít cum ínnumerabile peditum mu ltitudíne (.) eo ín hunc modum agente . Willelmus de breusa excercítum ad abertewí mouít partemque uille combussít et síc ín sua redíít philippus magnel in bellu conflictu ibi cecidít · exíít edictum a rege Ricardo ut omnium rerum uenalium commercía per vníuersum regnum eius vnius mensure ponderís et pretii[17] fierent ·

[c517] Annus. Res filius grifut karmardin combussit et maysheueyt símiliter .

[e7 1196] Annus . mus . cus . xcus vius . Resus Griffíní filius collecto exercítu . kaermerdẏn fortíter ínuasit eamque íncendio solotenus destruxít . tantum castellí apíce euaso . deínde eodem . anno . maxímo exercítu suorum et quamplurium sibi fauencíum . Idem Resus castellum coloín obsedít atque ad dedícionem coegít . et sibi redítum statím combussít . Quo destructo : ocíus idem Resus et suí in eadem expedícione uírilíter profícíscentes : Radenouerwiam combusserunt . qua combusta : eadem díe Rogerus de mortuo mari et hugo de saí cum maxímo apparatu ín ualle eíusdem uílle turmas magnas bellícís armís munítíssímas acíes ínstauratas . lorícas clípeatas . galeatas . contra Resum príncípem exposuerunt . Quos ut Resus uír magnanímus asspicíens : manu ualída . corde audací Leonem índuens ín hostes írrumpens eosdemque actutum ín fugam conuertens fugatos ínstanter per sequens uílíter . sed uíriliter tractauít . Omnesque marchenses tremore affecti non modíco : stragem ibidem factam complanxerunt . Nec mora Idem uír bellicus castellum pain . apud eluael obsedít . Quod cum íam bellicis machinamentís exsuperans : ad dedicionem cogi posset : concordía cum domíno Willelmo de breusa peracta . in bona pace relíquid . hoc etiam anno . H(ubertus) . Cantuariensis archíepiscopus tocius Anglie Justicíarius . regni tocius uíribus collectís . ducibus (.) baronibus . ínfinítis milítibus . tociusque wallíe príncípibus coadunatís . castellum wenoínun de la pola obsederunt (.) Quod laboriose oppugnantes díuersisque machínis bellorum sepíus assultantes demum arte míra míssís interra mínítaríis aggeremque mote interíus sollícíte subterfodíentibus ad dedícionem compulerunt . íta tamen quod castellaní uno tantum interempto cum suís armís libere et quiete castello tradíto recesserunt . deínde cítra eiusdem anní termínum Wenoínun collectís uíribus suís prefatum castellum obsedít ac uirilíter sibi reddí coegit . ab ipso símílíter castellanís uíta armísque cum libertate recedendí concessís[18] . hoc quoque anno . G(riffinus) . bone memoríe Abbas de Strathflur[19] mígrauít ad domínum .

[b1219 1197] Anus m·cxcvíi · Resus gri fíní filíus sudwallie princeps nobilissímus mors anglorum clipeus · britonum ·iiii· kalendas · maíi moritur ·[20] cuius corpus nobile apud sanctum Dauíd cum honore debito humatum est ad cuius honorem hos versicu los pro modulo nostro composuímus Inducta símilitudíne inter ipsum et tírannos per con(t)raríum · Cum voluít pluuias busiris cede parabat · Noluít ethereas sanguíne Resus aquas · Et quociens phalerís cíues torrebat ín ere · Gentibus ínuísís resus adesse solet (.) Non fuit antiphates non falsus uíctor ulixes · Non homines rapidis pabula fecít equis (.) Sed piger ad · poenam · principes · ad premia uelox · Quicquid do · quo cogitur esse ferox · hic non degenerat generoso germine natus · Regibus ortus obít Resus ad astra redít · Grifinus ·filius· Resi statím post obitum patris suí curiam regis adíuít ibíque factus heres domum redíít · mailgonus Resi filíus circa augustum · Grifínum fratrem suum cepit et weneuínwe filío owini custodiendum tradidít quem post modum wenunwen regi pro carrec huwa dedít . Resus paruus et maredut filíí Resí a carcere Grifíni fratris sui soluti sunt .

[c518] Annus. Ricardus rex obiit .[21] cui successit iohannes frater eius . Resus filius grifut sutwallie princeps moritur . iiii°. kalendas maíí .[22] cuius corpus apud sanctum dauid honorifice humatum est .

[e8 1197] Annus . mus . cus . xcus . viius. hoc anno mortalítatís maxíma pestilencía tocius bríttanníe nec etiamet gallíe termínos occupans plebeíos infínítos nobiles quamplurímos duces ac princípes (interemit). hoc enim anno pestifero atropos sororum seuíssíma que nemíní parcere gnara cunctís mortalibus ínuísa . magní uírí . scilicet . Resi exerícíum[23] ausa est demolírí . Quem ínstabilítatís mater . fortuna nature condícionem hoc solo oblíta íugí celsitudíne rote passa est permanere suoque ab etatís sue exordío benígno refouerat gremío . Ad tantí ergo obítum uírí accedens aut sine lacrimís enarrandum utpote planctu dígnum . aut cuique síne dolore recordandum . quia omníbus dampnosum . aut síne merore audíendum . quia cunctis lugubrem defícío . uox silet . lingua stupet . tantí uírí probítates quas ille magnanimus historíographus thebanus si temporís uícíssítudo concessisset tebaide[24] sopita pertractante gauderet : Verum ille historiographus troíanus poetarum nobilíssímus[25] sí mísera fata dedíssent grandíloquo stilo ín longum diffunderet euum . Letifer híc annus et cunctís lamentabilis annus . cuius . iiiio . kalendas maíí . Resus griffíní fílíus Suthwallíe prínceps . uerum tocius wallíe capud . insuperabile fato occubuít ínportuno . híc namque nobilíssíma regum ortus prosapía . uerum ipse clarus genearcha mentís probítatem generí coequauít . et síc gemínans anímum nobilítate generís . consolator procerum . forcíum debellator . subdítorum benígnus tutator . urbíum ualidus expugnator . bella mouens . turmas ínstaurans . hostiles cateruas obruens . aut secus quam aper frendens audacía . seu leo rugíens caude uerbere stímulatus in íras . ferrítate deseuíebat in hostes . O bellí gloria . mílícíe decus . ac clipeus . nobile tutamen patríe . armorum decus . brachíum fortitudínís . largítatís manus . rationís occulus . honestatís splendor . anímosítatís apex . probítatís hercule secundus . Achillis asperítatem . pectore gerens . nestorís modestíam . tídrí[26] Audacíam . sampsonís fortítudínem . hectorís grauítatem . eurialí agilítatem . paridís formam . vlixís facundíam . salomonís sapíencíam . aiacís anímosítatem . íníuríe dampna morte recompensantem . O míserorum tutum refugíum . nudorum índumentum . esuríencíum morsus . sícíencíum potus . O omum postulancíum prompta satisfactío donorum . o dulcís eloquío . comís obsequio . morum honestas . sermone modestus . uultu hilarís . facíe decorus . cunctís benígnus . omníbus equus . símplícítatís aut ficte pietas . humílítatís aut fabrícate sublímítas . h(eu) . heu . iam wallía uiduata dolet . ruítura dolore . hoc anno . owínus filius griffíní de maillaur . et owínus filius hewel . filius[27] Ienaut . et maílgun filius katwallaun obíerunt . Reso autem ut díctum est mortuo : griffínus filius eíus successít eí ín patrío regímíne . quem postea frater eíus . scilicet maílgun quí tunc heredítatís expers exulabat cum suís uíribus et cum famílía . wenoínun adueníens apud Aberstruth cepit ac quosdam de suís interemít quosdam íncarcerauít . Ipsumque griffínum ín carcerem wenaínun delegauít quem postea anglícís íuxta placítum suum tradidít .

[b1220 1198] Anus ·m·c xcviii · Grifínus Resi fílíus a carcere regís solutus est · cedes Walensium a francis facta est ín elwail in obsidione payn · Precepit rex Ricardus omnes cartas ín regno suo emptas reformaríet nouí sigilli suí impressione roborari ·[28]

[c519] Annus. Petrus episcopus meneuensis obiit .[29] qui opus nouum ecclesie meneuensis íncepit . vixit autem episcopus .xxii. annis . mensibus .vii. diebus .xv.[30]

[e9 1198] Annus . mus . cus . xcus . viiius. hoc anno mailgun filíus Resí fratre suo gríffíno íam anglícis tradíto abertheíuẏet castellum stratmeurích sue dícione conquisíuít . hoc etiam anno wenoínun proponens pristínam dígnítatem wallensibus restítuere et fínes ac ter mínos sibi quondam exígente peccatorum multítudíne subtractos ad propríos uolens reuocare heredes círca festíuítatem beate maríe magdelene fauentibus sibi tocíus wallíe principibus : opemque ferentibus . grandem collegít excercitum . quibus coadunatís : castellum paen obsederunt per tres fere ebdomadas cum magna et magnanímí[31] exultacione lícet mínus cauta suís íugiter bellícís oppugnantes machínamentís . Ignorabant namque quíd sibi prepararent míserabiles reí euentus . Anglící enim hoc comperto : exterrítí gríffínum (fi)líum Resí quem compeditum tunc tenebant absoluerunt .et tocíus anglíe robur coadunarí fecerunt . sic cum walensibus pacem constítuere toto conamíne nítentes . ipsi uero ob peccatorum suorum meríta obduratí non solum anglíce gentís petícioníbus non adquieuerunt . verum etiam post predicti castelli dedícionem suas cíuítates se combussuroset possessiones deuastaturos asserebant . Anglící ítaque hoc non ferentes díuíno ut postea perpatuit nutu ín eos impetum fecerunt et ín primo congressu míseram gentem ín fugam cogentes ínnumerabilitur ut oues íugulauerunt . dumque hec ín audíta strages et ínsolita cedes agitur ínter relíquos arenaut filíus eínaun et owínus Rascop .[32] filius cathwallaun et Ríríth filius iestín . et Robertus filius hewel interfícíuntur . mareduc uero filius kenan tentus carcere mancípatur . síque anglicí leti et spoliís eorum dítatí ad propria remearunt . hoc anno gríffinus filius Resí partem heredítatís sue a mailgone fratre suo uíriliter adquírens optinuít . exceptis duobus castellis Aberteíuẏ . scilicet .et strathmeuríc . quorum vnum . scilicet . aberteíuí modícum post acceptís obsidibus a griffino pro pace tenenda : mailgun se reddíturum eidem griffíno mediantibus monachís et conuersís díe statuto super multíplices sanctorum relíquías íurauít . Sed iuramentocontempto : nec obsides reddidit nec castellum . quos tamen obsides paulopost de carcere weneínun díuína uírtus potenter erípuít .

[b1221 1199] Anus ·m·c·xcix · Willelmus dewer [33] herefordensis episcopus obíít ínchristo[34] cui succescít ín episcopatum filíus Willelmi de breusa egidius nomine ·[35] houelus seys Resi filíus erga pascha curiam regís Iohannes adíuít et ín redítu suo apud striguil egritudíne coreptus · obiit uel ut alíí uolunt a francís occisus est qui omnes Wallie duces largitate precellabat . Willelmus marescallus factus est comes penbrochie ·[36]

[c520] Annus. Ricardus rex anglorum in quadam expeditione apud lymoses ictu baliste percussus diem clausit supremum[37] cui successit iohannes frater eius .

[e10 1199] Annus ab íncarnacione mus . cus . xcus . ixus . Mailgun prouíde et caute exertítum[38] collegít quo collecto : domum quam griffínus apud díneírth edificauerat : uíriliter inuasít . et quotquot ibi repperít partím ínterfecít partim íncarcerauít . gríffinus castellum de ki(l)gerran dolo optínuit . hoc etiam anno . Ricardus rex anglíe castellum cuíusdam baronís sibi obstínatí obsídens et a quodam de castello íctu sagítte que anglice alblaster vocatur percussus : uítam fíniuit . Iohannes uero frater eius regío honore sublimatus eí successít ín regnum .[39]

[b1222 1200] Anus ·m·cc · mailgonus filíus Resí ut vidít quod solus terram patris suí tenere non potuít quin francis uel Grifíno fratri suo partem daret elegit pocíus cum hostibus partirí quam cum fratre · uen didít igitur Regí castellum abertewi pro paruo argenti pondere et pro malediccione cleri et populi tocius Wallíe (.) Geraldus filius mauricíi ín hibernia defunctus est ·[40] incipit ordo predica(t)orum . [41]

[c521] Annus. Mailgun filius Res castellum aberteyui homin(i)bus resi[42] donauit . et obsides a baronibus accepit .

[e11 1200] Annus . mus . cus . xcus . xus. hoc anno circa festum beate marie magdalene . mailgun filius Resi castellum de Aberteíui clauem et custodiam tocius Kambríe metu pariter et odío griffíní fratris sui anglícís pro uilí pretío uendidít .

[b1223 1201] Anus m·cci · maredut filíus resi inclitus adolescens a francís de Kedweli die sancti swithíní occisus est cuius corpus ad kedweli dilatum ibique iuxta ecclesiam sancte marie humatum est · Grifinus Resi filíus terram maredut fratris suí ·scilicet· cantrefbechan cum oppído llanamdewrí sibi cepít sed ante mensem exactum Grifínus quadam ínfírmítate correptus ibidem obíit · Resus paruus cantrefbechan cum oppido tenuít · mailgonus Resi filíus castellum Kilgerran quod ín potestate grifíní fuerat cepit · Innocencius papa ab ordíne cisterciensium pecunías violenter exegít ad subsidium terre sancte qui a beata maría eiusdem ordínís aduocata amonítus ab hac accione quieuit[43]

[c522] Annus. Grifut filius Res obiit . Et maredut frater ipsius ab hominibus de Kedweli occisus est . Resus paruus cantref bechan cum opido tenuít . Mailgun resi filius castellum Kilkernn[44] quod ín potestate grifíní fuerat cepit

[e12 1201] Annus . mus . ccus . ius. hoc anno lewelínus Geruasíí filíus íuuenís . tocíus tam largítatís quam probitatís dono ornatus . expulso mareduko kenaní filío sue prodícionís meríto cantredum quí uocatur thleín cum euíonẏd sibi uíriliter adquisíuít . modicum post círca festum apostolorum petri et paulí mareduc filius Resí íuuenís egregíus . suís honor . hostibus horror . omnibus amor . ínter armatas acíes tanquam fulgur egredíens . cunctorumque mentíbus uel spes uníca uel metus exístens . omnis honorís honos . decor et decus urbíset orbis apud carnewalleun heu interfícitur . cuius castellum de lanamdeurẏ cum adíacente cantaredo Griffinus frater eius optínuít . uír magnus et prudens nímírum ín formam ínformia . ín normam enormía . queque reducens . fortunam ducens et se ín anteríora protendens . tempora sibi contemperans et semper successíbus ínstans . et ut sperabatur, kambríe monarchíam ín breuí reformasset sí non tam prepropere . tam premature . tam ínopínate eum sequentí festíuítate sanctí Iacobí apostoli ínuída fatorum seríes rapuísset . et ut breuí eloquio laudís ad cumulum multa concludam : egregío patrí sola fuít etate non uirtute secundus . Hoc igitur anno magnus íste de quo loquimur Gríffínus magní Resí filius de íure kambríe prínceps et heres uír assper ín hostes . benígnus ad cíues . líberalís ad omnes sumpto relígionis habitu apud stratflur : cum honore sepultus est .

[b1224 1202] Anus .m.ccii. Arthurus dux armorícanorum britonum a rege Iohanne in belli conflíctu cum multis baronibus et militibus · philippo Regi francorum fauentibus captus est · et alienor soror e(i)us cum ipso ·[45]

[c523] Annus. Arthurus dux armoricanorum britonum a iohanne rege anglie in belli conflictu cum multis baronibus et militibus philippo regi francorum fauentibus captus est .

[e13 1202] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . iius. mareduc filius kanan sue prodicionís meríto a howelo filío Gríffíní frat ris suí de meíronẏd expellitur . omní quod uidebatur habere super lectilí excepto proprio equo spolíatus . hocetiam anno walenses castellum de werchernaun ín octauo apostolorum petri et paulí obsederunt . cuius domínator tunc erat . Rogerus de mortuo mariet castellanos uiriliter ad dedícionem cogentes illud infra septímane círculum optínuer(u)nt[46] ígníque solotenus combusserunt .

[b1225 1203] Anus ·m·cciii · Galfridus prior lantoniensis ecclesie die sancti ·Nicholai· meneuensis ecclesie episcopus consecratur[47]

[c524] Annus. Idem arthurus in carcere amíttitur nec scitur pro certo quo deuenit . mors tamen eius imputatur iohanni regi anglie auunculo suo .et quod eum propria manu peremít .[48] Eodem anno Galfridus meneuensis episcopus in octaba sancti andréé apostoli londoniis consecratur ab huberto cantuariensi archiepiscopo .[49] Nam sex precedentibus annis sedes uacauerat proptercontrouersiam electionis inter cantuariensem archiepiscopum et abbatem sancti dogmaelis lite ad ultímum determínata in curia romana .

[e14 1203] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . iiius. Resus filíus griffíní castellum de lan ogwant cepít .

[b1226 1204] Anus ·m·cc iiii · Arthurus dux armoricanorum brítonum in carcere regís Iohannis obiit uel aut alíí uolunt occisus est · Philippus rex francíe normanniam dolo consulum et baronum terre dicioní sue subíugauít · Iohannes de curcí[50] a filíis hugonís de laci hibernia expulsus est · Robertus comes lerecestrie miles strenuissímus obiit ·[51] Willelmus comes marescallus oppidum Kilgerran primo ímpetu cepít . familiaribus mailgonís qui illud obseruabant ínermibus abire dímissís

[c525] Annus. Iohannes rex anglie rothomagum totamque normanniam amisit .[52] Hubertus cantuariensis archiepiscopus obiit .[53] uir magne industrie et mírabilis astutie . sed parum litteratus . totius tamen anglie quandoque íustíciarius . Quo humato : statim monachi cantuarienses subpriorem suum elegerunt . et cum literis prioris et con uentus magna onustum pecunía ad curiam romanam transmíserunt . Quod cum regi iohanni innotuísset[54] : illico omnia uíctualia et omnia necessaria et etiam exitumuel introitum extra cymiterium prefatis monachis inhibuít . Illi autem uídentes destructionem sue domus immínere : regem adierunt . et consilíís ipsius adquiescere pro míserunt . Veníens itaque rex cantuariam episcopum norwicensem sibi ualde familiarem secum adduxit . monachos corrupit . promittendo priori et . xíí . maioribusconuentus cuilibet eorum episcopatum uel abbatiam ut memoratum episcopum postularent . et sic eum postularunt . et tanquam postulatum ad osculum pacis receperunt in conuentu et in refectorio . et literas suas transmiserunt subpriori in curia romana existentiet munus consecrationis expectanti ut domum rediret . et ne de negocio election is de se facere quicquam íntromitteret . Quo d cum a domino papacompertum esset : nuncios cum literis suís domino regi destínauít . ut rex literas suas patentes de ratihabitione cum priore et . xíí . de discretioribus cantuariensis ecclesie romam mitteret . ut quem illi in presentia ipsius eligerent pro archiepiscopo haberet . Rex autem quasi certus de monachis omnimodas expensas eis contulit . et literas suas patentes de ratihabitone . ut quem illi in presentia pape eligerent : domin(u)s papaconsecraret . consecra tumque cum pallio in angliam transmítteret . Ueníentes autem monachi ad curiam romanam : quod regi firmiteret cum iuramento promiserant neglexerunt . et dissensione inter eos habita imo mortuo : quinque ex ipsis in proposito sicut promíserant permanserunt : Dominus autem papa audiens episcopum ualde esse secu larem et a pluribus diffamatum : priorem cum reliquís modis omnibus induxit . ut magistrum stephanum anglicum quondam theologum ualde literatum eligerunt .[55] Eo autem electo : domin(u)s papa eum honorifice consecrauít .[56]et cum priuilegíís et pallio in angliam ad sedem suam transmísit . Quod cum regi innotuisset : omnes monachos cantuariensis ecclesie de regno suo expulit . nec vnus eorum in toto regno anglie remansit . Et intro itum archiepiscopo et suís in regnum ín regnum [57] inhibuit . Domin(u)s autem papa . factis pluribus monítionibus domino regi ut archiepiscopum reciperet . rege semper in malicia perseuerante : totam angliam sub generali ínterdicto conclusit .[58] ne aliqua díuína in ecclesíís celebrarentur excepto solo baptismate . Et ne aliqua corpora episcoporum . abbatum . monachorum . clericorum . laycorum . in cymíteríís aut locisconsecrates sepelirentur . set extra cíuítates et uillas in triuíís et quadriuíís et in uíarum exitibus sepelirentur . Henricus exoniensis episcopus obiit .[59]

[e15 1204] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . iiiius. howelus filius Resí magní . Iuuenís egregíus . spes suorum horror hostium . dolo apud kemmeẏs . ab homínibus mailgonís uulnere letalí est transfixus . híc itaque sumpto relígíonís habítu Griffíní fratris suí conuectus sepulcro apud stratflour honorifice est sepultus . Eodem anno mailgun filíus Resi amisít quasi claues et custodes omníum que habebat lannamdeurí . scilicet .et dínneuor . que uidelicet castella obsederunt filíí Griffíni fratris suí et optínuerunt . In huius anní círculo círca aduentum domini willielmus marescallus cum grandí exercítu et nímío armorum apparatu adueníens castellum de kilgarran obsedit et optínuít .

[b1227 1205] Anus ·m·ccv · hubertus cantuariensis archiepiscopus obiit ·[60] Rex anglie Iohannes cum excercítu pictauiam intrauít · sed cum philíppo francorum regí míníme resistere potuít · ín angliam uacuus redíít ·[61] Resus paruus cum francís castellum luch eweín quod erat ín potestate filiorum grifiní com bussít omnibus occisís qui illud obseruabant · Mutacio monete facta est ·[62]

[e16 1205] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . vus. hubertus cantuariensis archíepiscopus et domini pape legatus et tocius anglie prímas . obiit .

[b1228 1206] Anus ·m·ccvi·

[c526] Annus. prior cantuariensis romam adíít .

[e17 1206] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . vius. príma díe rogacionum .[63] mailgun filius Resí . kedíuor filíum Griffíní uírum bonum et probum . fortem . et largum et íníque captum cum suís quatuor egregíís filiis . a quodam hẏberníense securí ínterfící fecít .

[b1229 1207] Anus ·m·ccvii cepit rex tertíam decímam partem regní tam de mobilibus quam de ínmobilibus ad recuperandam hereditatem suam ín Northmannía ab hac exactione liber fuít Cisterciensium ordo ·[64]

[c527] Annus. Magister stephanus de langedun a papa innocentio tercio circa kalendas Iulíí in archiepiscopum cantuariensem consecratur .[65]

[b1230 1208] Anus ·m ccviii Resus paruus secundo castellum lucheweín combussit opidanís partem captís partem cesís ·

[c528] Annus. Generale interdictum fit per totam angliam . x . kalendas aprilis dominíca prima in passione domini .[66] Eodem anno circa festum sancti michaelis Willelmus de brewsa mota discordia inter ipsum et regem cum uxore et filíís tímens regem in yberniam fugit .

[e18 1207] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . viius. Christianítas per anglíam et wallíam a domino papa . ínterdicta est . eo quod Rex contradixit cantuariensis Archíepiscopi electioni et eum a regno excluserít[67] .[68] hocetiam anno willielmus de breusa uír ín sua gente nobilis et discretus a Rege de terra sua expulsus est . ad hẏber níam cum rerum suarum dampno et dedecore . Gwenoínuẏn apud solopiam captus est . hoc anno circa festum sancti michelis . lewelínus geruasíí filius grandem collegit exercitum pro ponens mailgonem Resi filium uírum fortemet sapíentem exheredare . quo comperto predictus . m(ailgun) . quatuor castella que tunc temporís possidebat destruxit atque combussít . lewelínus nichilominus íter uersus suthwalliam tendens . apud aberestuẏd castra metatus est . Adueníentes uero patríote uníuersi tam sibí quam filíís griffíní homagium fecerunt . sicque prefatus . l(ewelinus) . ín pace reuersus acceptís obsidibus . ín reditu suo terram gwennaínun optínuít cum suís castellis . modícum post Gerardus atthí[69] vícecomes glouerníe cuí etiam tota terra willielmi de breousa commíssa fuerat a rege cum superbía et armorum nímío apparatu ad terram filíí (Griffini) de buelth accessít ut eam uastaret et íncastellaret . príma igitur nocte apud grangíam de aberdehoneu pernoctauít . sequentí díe propos ítum perficere uolens accessít ad locum vbi construendum erat castellum . Cuí obuíauerunt ex utraque flumínís parte famílía filíí griffíní . et família . I [70] . filíí . eẏnun et uíriliter resistentes francorum phalanges uí coactos grangíam íterum intrare compulerunt . Sicque totam díem ducentes ín luctamíne tandem anglorum exercítus ex parte dímínutus dedícioní compellíturet obsidíbus ab eís pro pace tenenda perceptís : cum dedecore et confusíone ad patríam reuersí sunt . Summaríís et catallis quamplurimís pre nímío tímore ín nemore derelíctís .

[b1231 1209] Anus ·m·ccíx Natus est Ricardus secundus regís filius ·[71] Rex in scociam íuit ·[72]

[c529] Annus.

[e19 1208] Annus . domini . mus .ccus . viiius . Sabbato post octauas pentecostes . duo filíí gríffiní . R(esus) . et . G .[73] ínuaserunt castellum Resí parui auunculi suí de langadauc . et apposito ígne : illud uírilíter combusserunt . partím ex castellanís ínterfectís partím carcerí mancípatís .

[b1232 1210] Anus ·m ccx · rex Iohannes walterum et hugonem delaci ·hibernía · wallía · anglia expulit . Incipit ordo mínorum ·[74]

[c530] Annus. omnes episcopi anglie de regno ieiecti sunt exceptis duobus wintoniensi et noruicensi per quem et propter quem tota discordia motaest . Eodem anno iohannes rex anglie cum magno exercitu et apparatu uenit pembrochiam . et collectis ibidem .m. nauibus apud milford id est aberclethif in crastíno sanctorum cyrici et iulitte matris eius mare íntrans : applicuít apud Waterford id est porthlarki . et Walterum de lacy sibi rebellem cepit . qui omnes munítiones et terras suas eidem regi resignauít . quia aliter uítam et membra habere non potuít . Hugo autem de lacy vir peruersus in parua nauicula in scotiam euasit . capta tamen ibidem uxore Willelmi de brerosa[75]et Willelmo íuníore filio ipsius . qui ducti ad regem ex precepto eiusdem in dolio clauduntur . et sic missi in angliam in castello de Wíndesors fame et inedia per ieunt . Rex autem peracto ibidem pro uoluntate negocio die martis proxima post assum ptionem beate uirgínís reuersus de ybernía applicuít apud fissegard id est abergweun . et cum festínacione angliam adíít .[76] Eodem anno amísit Robertus filius Ricardi castellum hauer fordie cum tota baronía .

[e20 1209] Annus . domini . mus .ccus . ixus. círca pentecosten[77] Iohannes rex anglie congregato gra ndí exercítu hẏberníe partes prospero comítante uento íntrauit . quo comper to : uníuersi qui sibi dícebantur aduersarí nímío tímore perter (r)ítí partím ín fugam íníerunt ínsulam deserentes . partim se eidem Regi presentauerunt mísericordiam ab eo qua penítus carebat toto nísu postulantes (.) Ipse uero expers misericordíe nec baronum suorum ductus amore nec beneficiorum seu fidelitatum sibi exhibitarum recordacione motus . quosdam penitus exheredauit[78] . quosdam omnibus que habere uiderentur fere spolíauít . ipsi solí retínens omnia . Ipsique[79] presentati sunt eí willielmus íuníor dominus de Brecheníauc cum matreet uxore et filíís quos carcerí post modum apud anglíam destinatos ut fertur mírabilí ímmo miserabilí morte fecít extinguí . Tandem ítaque obsidibus a prioratís pro pace tenenda et fidelítate acceptís : legibus et íusticíaríís constítutís . ad Angliam reuersus est . Qui in redítu suo deí tímore postposíto cepít per sequi ecclesias . ecclesiastícas personas mírabilibus et ín audítis[80] exactíonibus grauare . íta quod monasteria multa cisterciensis ordínís que numquam fuerunt talía experta aut híís símília fere destruí uídebantur . dum hec agerentur . comes de cestria cum nímío armorum et uírorum apparatu íter tendens uersus Norwalliam castra metatus est apud ganneu quod munítissímum castrum paulo ante a norwalensibus eíusdem comítís tímore ductís non eciam destructum sed satís effemínateet paruíssime ex parte fuít coruptum et derelíctum . Quod statím prefatus comes repararí fecít et reformarí et bene munítum uíris . armís . et cibaríís . derelíquid . et ad propria amíssís quibusdam de melíoribus suíset lorícís . reuersus est . Eodem tempore fulco vícecomes penbroc cum suís uíríbus ad castellum filíorum griffíní de dẏneírth . duce mailgone filio Resí uenít et apponentes ígnem eidem castello nichil profecerunt resistentibus uíriliter paucís íuuenibus qui intus habebantur . qui ad gentís sue defensíonemet ad famam suam amplíandam et custodíendam prompciores erant subíre mortem quam cedere exercituí anglorum . vnde etiam quibus dam de castellanís desperabiliter uulneratís : prefatus fulco cum exercítu suo insequentibus prefatís filíís griffiní cum dedecore et festínacione ad propría est reuersus . Modícum post Ingelard vícecomes glouerníe cum turmís haut modícis . ad castellum construendum apud Buelth aduenícns[81] francorum phalanges per ordinemet consuetudínem certamínis et belli constítuí fecít . Resistente uero more solíto modíca turma wallensium uíriliter : ínterfectí sunt . xl . uírí ad mínus de exer cítu anglícano . et íta illo díe níchil profícíentes . ín crastíno proposítum suumet uelle perfecerunt . nullo eís penítus resistente sed totam predíctam terram optínuere .

[b1233 1211] Anus m·ccxi · Iohannes rex anglíe cíto post pascha excercitum ín norwallía mouít cuius ín auxilium de switwallía uenerunt duo filíí Resi · mailgonus et resus par uus · de powís wenninwen filíus owíní et alíí mínorís potestatís duces · hoc audiens lewelinus dux Norwallie omnia usque ad montem hererí remouít · Rex igitur vídens se nil agere posse · coactus ín angliam vacuus redíít Item · Rex predicti opprobri non ímmemor · secundo ín nortwalliam gressum duxit et ín ea castella ·xiiii· uel amplíus firmauit · lewelinus ad predicci montís tutamína cum suís se recepít · tandem mediantibus anglíe et wallíe optímatibus · reconciliantibus tribus milibus pecorum regi datís · Rex in sua redíít ·[82] franci ductu filiorum resi mailgoni ·scilicet· et resi paruí castellum aberistut firmauerunt · sed mailgonus et Resus congnita francorum perfidiam statim combusserunt opidanis abire dímissís · mailgonus ín swtwalliam bellum mouít · catwalo in glamorgan predas et combustiones fecít non sine hominum detrimento

[c531] Annus.[83] Iohannes rex cum magno exercitu nortwalliam adíuit . et lewelino filio yoruerth principi venedocie cui annam filiam suam in uxorem dederat muníti ones et opida sua abstulit . et uíx pacificatus lewelín . xxx . obsides regi dedit . et ut perhibent . víí . milia auería cum equis pluribuset canibus et auibus promisit . Episcopum autem bangorensem quia ad eum ueníre noluit in ecclesia bangorensi ante altare episcopalibus indutum capi precepit . Qui data pecunía uitam et membra prout melius potuít redemít . Rex facta pace ín angliam redíít . Robertus filius ricardi . xiiii . kalendas iuníí obiit .

[e21 1210] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xus . lewelinus geruasíí filíus Norwallie prínceps celebras írrupciones ín anglos facíens . ínter cetera kenlathet nanuwudu uastauít et sibi resistencíum quosdam tenuít . quosdam ínterfecít . eodem anno griffínus filius Iuor gulathmorgan[84] apud abbatíam de kaerlẏon obíít . In hoc anno Iohannes Rex Anglie proponens exheredare lewelínum filium geruasíí grandem círca pentecosten collegít exercítum . congregata ígitur multítudíne tam francorum quam wallensium . uersus Nortwalliam tendens peruenit . usque de gannoẏ[85] ubi exercítus ciborum penuría affícitur adeo ut ouum pro denarío et obolo uenderetur carnes equinas pro delicato cibo haberent . vnde cum dedecore et suorum dampno non modíco reuersus nullum negocio suo ímposuít effectum . Qui íterum círca kalendas augustí cum maíorí apparatu . et robore exer cítus . nortwallíam aggressus estet quatuor cantedros de peruethwlath . cum alíís adíacentibus terrís optínuít . castrís pluribus muníens et cíngens ea et villam de Bangor solotenus combustam . et capto episcopo : lewelínum princípem dedícioni compulít . et acceptís ab eo pro pace tenenda obsidibus : uíctor remeauít ad propría . post hec círca exaltacionem sancte crucis castrum de aberestuẏd a balliuís regis constructum fuít . sed post paululum a mailgone filío Resi quí cum coadunatís wallensibus consurexerat contra Regem uíriliter expugnatum atque destructum fuít . Sed terram qua m Rex ínuaserat : Idem mailgun reoptínuít .

[b1234 1212] Anus ·m·ccxii · mailgonuset wennenwen cum lewelíno nortwalensíum duce foedus ínierunt et in powís stragem magnam d{e} francís fecerunt · Robertus de wepínít in fugam uersus ín angliam uix euasít

[c532] Annus. Mense februarii nocte quadam quiescente quodam uiro bone conuersationiset honeste in stratu suo circa mediam noctem audíuít quasi quemdam sibi dicentem . Surge et uíde míra et magnarum rerum prenostica . Qui statim expergefactus crucis signaculo se muníuít . et surgens a lecto foras exíuít .et circumspiciens vndique eleuans oculos in celum : tres lunas uidit . vnam in ortu yemali mínorem plena maiorem semiplena . Duas alias in occidente uídit que mínores erant uergen tes in occasum . Homo autem stupefactus sacerdoti suo uisionem indicauit . qui uisionís testimonium perhibuit .

[e22 1211] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xius . castrum apud carrec offa reedifícatum fuít ab anglícís . et mailgonís filiu s elegantíssímus puer Resus nomíne nondum decennís etate[86] apud amoẏthíc[87] susspensus fuít . mortuus mundo . uíuus deo . raptus est enim ne malícía mutaret íntellectum illius . Eodem anno coníurauerunt walenses contra regem anglíe et vno anímo eí uíriliter restíterunt . et constituerunt sibi capud unum . scilicet . lewelínum princípem Nortwallie . In ipso quoque tempore tres uírí uener abiles . míserande memoríe . howel filius catwallaun . madauc filius mailgun . meuríc barrec . ín anglía sussepensí sunt . eodem tempore dícebatur bellum ínterChristianos et saracenos ortum fuisseet de paganís . lxxa . ma . uírorum et . iiia . ma . mulíerum cecídisse .[88] hoc anno Innocencius . iiius . tres príncípes . lewelín . maílgun . wenoẏnoín . auctorítate sua absoluít a fidelítate quam debebant regí anglíe . et ín remíssíonem omníum peccatorum eís íniunxit ut ad eiusdem regís nequicíam conterendam : dilígens studíumet effícacem operam ínpenderent . sed et ínterdíctum quod per quatuor ante annos ín tota anglícana et wallícana ecclesia durauerat . ín terrís illorum tantumet alíorum quí se illis íungebant penitus resoluít . Qui communi consilío consurgentes . terram de peruerwalth quam rex ante ínuaserat uírilíter optínuerunt . et omnía castra que Idem rex construxerat exceptís tribus castellis solotenus destructa derelíquerunt . castellanís partím captis partím ínterfectis nullum eís succursum prefato rege ferente .

[b1235 1213] Anus m·ccxiii lewelinus dux norwallíe cum ducibus sibiconfederatís ·scilicet· mailgonem et wennunwen et alíís mínorís nominis et potestatís ducibus castella per Norwallíam et powis a rege firmata vnum post alíud ualida manu ceperunt opidanís · partem cesis partem redemptis partim abire dimissís · Resuset owinus filíi Grifíni francorum auxilio denewr et lanamdeweri ceperunt Reso paruo domino terre vi expulso · Resus paruus ad mailgonem se transtulít et cum eo par um moratus · inde ad francos uenít qui eum post modicum temporís interuallum ceperunt et ín angliam duxerunt · offert rex ecclesie romane totum regnum anglie et hibernie tenenda ea sibiet heredibus suis tanquam feudariis per annuum redditum ·m· marcarum ·[89]

[c533] Annus. Philippus rex fra ncorum ex precepto dominí pape Innocentíí tertíí in angliam ire proposuít ut restitueret stephanum cantuariensem archiepiscopum ad sedem suam . collectaque nauíum multitudíne apud caleys : rex iohannes galeas suas ultra mare transmisit . spoliataque classe regis francorum circiter octagínta naues combusserunt . Combustaigitur classe : rex philippus parysius redíít . Rex autem anglie tímens iterum aduentum regis francorum in angliam : ex consilio totius regní archiepiscopum et omnes episcopos qui in exilio erant reuocauít . Qui redeuntes : a regeet ab omnibus honorifice suscepti sunt[90] .

[e23 1212] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xiius. duo filíí gríffíní Resus[91] . scilicet . et oweín . fauentibus sibí regis baronibus abdíta terrarum de stratchewẏ uíriliter penetrantes ad dẏnneuor usque peruenerunt . cuius castellí cum adiacentibus cantaredís tunc temporís Resus filius Resi[92] possessor erat et dominus . venientes itaque castellanos in breuí dedicion i cogentes castellum optínuerunt . sola uita eisdem castellanís concessa cum armís . Qui modícum post símiliter francorum suffultí uirtute castellum de lana(m)deurí . cum armís optínuerunt sola uíta castellanís concessa . Sequenti estate . Resus filius . Resi ab officíalibus regís captus est . et apud kaermerdẏn díro carcerí mancípatus est . eodem tempore lewelínus Nortwallíe prínceps cum ceteris wallie príncí(pi)bus tría castra que remanserant apud Nortwalliam de ganuẏ . scilicet . et Rudlan et trewphennaun[93] optínuerunt . deínde modícum post arma assumentes castellum de walnernn[94] apud kereẏnaun constítutum obsederunt quod barones et milítes regís custodierunt . Illud uero uíriliter suís bellícis ínpugnantes machínacionibus penítus castellanos dedícioni coegissent nisi rex cum anglícano exercítu superuenisset suos cum suís tollendo castellum ad suí dedecorís augmentum solotenus destruens . Gwenoẏnun castellum de carrech houa optínuít .

[b1236 1214] Anus m·cc·xíííí · Rex anglíe circa purificacionem beate virginis pictauiam intrauít cuí in auxilium cum alemannís nepos suus otho venít · hoc audiens rex francíe philippus non in arcu suo sperans uel gladío sed ín ipso qui aperít et nemo claudít othonís acíem inuasít eamque dissipauít dissipacam · cedít · prostrauít pedibus equorum conculcauít · cepit etiam tres nobiles consules · Willelmum longum ensem fratrem regís anglíe et consulem boloníe · et consulem flandrie . othone ín fugam uerso Rex francíe cum triumpho ad sua redíít · vnde francia in gaudium uersa est · anglia in luctum ·[95] Rex anglie ín anglíam redíít ·[96] ubi postmodum crucís signaculo se ínsigníuít · Discidium ortum est inter regem anglíe et consules et barones aquilonales ·cuius· discidíí memínít merlinus uates ín uaticínío suo dicens · Nam discidium alíe{ní}genarum orietur . Consules et barones aquilonales cum principibus wallíecontra regem federa íníerunt · Egídius de breusa herefordensís episcopus facto cum ducibus Wallíe et baronibus anglíe federe terram patris suí cum castellis uí adquisiuít familíaribus regis undique expulsís · mailgonus et duo filii Grifiní in vígilia assencionis domini ad demeciam cum excercítu uenerunt et omnes Walenses demetice regíonís conquisíeruntet secum ultra tewí abduxerunt partím · partím uero apud emlín et elwed remanserunt · Resus filíus Grifiní cum auxilío mailgoní patruí sui kedeweliet kernawallan conqui síuít · Inde ad Goer potenter diuertítet ín ea predas et com bustíones fecít et castella com bussít et euertít non sine hominum detrimento pro qua re Ballíuiet burgenses de kermerdín uillam suam combusserunt (.) Resus filíus resi a carcere regís solutus est · Egidius herefordensis episcopus obíít ín christo ·[97] Stephanus cantuariensís archiepiscopus et ·G(eruasius)· meneuensis episcopus · cum omnibus fere anglíe · scocíe et wallie hibernie francíe et císalpíníset transalpínís episcopis romam adierunt . lewelinus nortwallíe dux cum nortwalensibus et wennínwen · filius owíní cum powisíensibus · mailgonus et Resus et duo filíí Grifíní · resus et owinus cum dextralibus díe concepcionís beate marie ad kermerdín venerunt et infra natale castellum · karmerdin francís expulsís non belli conflíctu sed solo eorum tímore ceperunt et euerterunt et cum eo castellum kedweli et sancti stephani et sancti clarí et treftraid · ín vigilía uero natalis dominí prefati duces leto wltu fluuium tewí transierunt . et die san cti stephani aberteíuí et kilgarran ceperunt quae duo castella tanquam íure paterno sibi integra seruauerunt · wnde walenses leti ad sua redeunt · fra nci uero tristes vndique eiecti uelut aues huc et illuc dispersi sunt · Relaxata est sentencia interdicti a domino papa et orta est dissensío inter reges et barones ut predictum est .[98]

[c534] Annus. Relaxatio ínterdicti per totam angliam . vuo. Nonas iuníí[99] . Galfridus meneuensis episcopus obiit .[100] cui successit Geruasíus . Iohannes rex tra nsfretauít in pictauiam . Consecratus est geruasius meneuensis episcopus .[101] Et lewelínus cepit kermerdynet cardigan et kilgarran . Eodem anno otho imperator cum comítibus flandrie et boloníeet comíte salesburie fratre regis anglie cum magno exercitu ad debellandum regem francorum ad termínos francie uenerunt . Quibus occurrens rex francorum eos deuícit . et fugato imperatore . uiior. comítes cepit . multamque multitudínem baronum et militum . ceteros autem in quantum potuerunt occiderunt circiter . xx . milia ut per hibent .[102]

[e24 1213] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xiiius . Iohannes rex anglie nímío regis francorum tímore perteritus grandem collegít exercítum síc custodíendo parcas[103] regní suí ne prefatus rex forte terram suam ínopínate íntraret et occuparet . Interím tamen per ínter nuncios fecít homagíum domino pa pe se subdens eí constítuens regnum suum ín manu sua sub tríbuto . promittensetiam se reddíturum res eccles íastícas quas deo offenso abstulít . Quod partím expleuít . ex parte maxima non . hoc etiam anno Christianítas ín anglia ínterdicta est a domino papa . símiliter et absoluta . eodem anno bellum ortum est ínter othonem ímperatoremet regem francorum . ín quo multa . milia . homínum coruerun t . et fugato ímperatore thesaurís regís anglie prefatus francorum rex dítatus et letus meríto uíctor effectus ad propria remeauít captís et ínuínculis tentís comítibus et multis alíís qui aderant hominibus regís anglíe . eodem anno gaufrídus episcopus meneuensis . obiit .

[c535] Annus. Discordia mota est inter Iohannem regem anglorum et omnes barones totíus regní propter oppressiones quas eis intulerat . et libertates quas eis abstulerat[104] .

[c537] Annus. Mota est discordia inter iohannem regem anglorumet optímates totíus regní sui .[105]et cum non posset illis resistere : crucem suscepit .[106]et nuncios ad curiam romanam transmisit exorans et postulans a domino papa ut eum quasi crucesignatum defenderet . Et ea condicione totam angliam domi no pape tributariam fecit reddendo annuatim curie romane septingentas marcas . Dominus itaque papa transmísit legatum in angliam .[107] quí[108]et lodouicum filium regis francorum qui in angliam uenerat : cum omnibus fautoribus suís excommunicauít .[109]et sic de anglia post absoluti onem tamen a legato adeptam cum dedecore recessit .[110]

[e25 1214] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xiiiius. Iohannes rex anglie dominíce crucís síngnaculo ínsígnítus est cum alíís multis . contra eumdem regem optímates fere tocius regní ínsurexererunt[111]et eum mare íntrare compellentes : londoniam optínuerunt . cum alíís pluribus castellis . Idem uero rex marítima conseruans crebras írrupciones ín comítum et baronum terras facíens despolíauit omnía et destruxit que ín uícínía sua ínueníre potuít . Interím uero . G .[112] filius willielmí de breusa herefordensis . episcopus ter ram patrís suí cum castellis suís uíriliter optínuít . lewelínus Nortwallie prínceps . solopíam optínuit . et castellum de mumgumbría et de kamhawn . princípes uero suthwalie capíte mailgone : terras regís ínuadentes haut modíca castra destruxerunt . uillas et cíuítates combusserunt . eodem anno Rome generale concilíum celebratum est . domino . Innocencio papa presidente . ín quo actum est de negocíís ecclesie et tra ctatum . ad quod etiam concilíum uocatí sunt et cítatí uníuersi fere tocíusChristianítatís archíepiscopi et episcopi . hoc anno duo walenses episcopi deo donante prefícíuntur meneuensi et bangorensi ecclesíís . Geruasíus[113] uero abbas de tallelecheu premonstracensis ordinis . sedi meneuie . Caduganus uero abbas de alba domo bangorum prefícítur . uír míre facundíe et sapientie . In fíne huius anni lewelínus northwallie princeps[114] parum ante natale domíní sutwalliam intrans cum grandi exercítu ínfra tres ebdomadas castella quorum nomína sunt . kermerdẏn . seínt cler . lanstephan . abercorran . trefdrahet . Aberteiuẏ . kilgarran prospere et uíriliter optínuít cum adiacentibus terrís et cantaredis . que omnía castella destructa sunt atque solotenus confracta exceptis aberteíuẏ et kilcarran . Idem uero lewelínus cum trípudío et uíctoría letus ad propría remeauít .

[b1237 1215] Anus ·m·ccxv Wenunwen a lewelíno principe norwallíe sua patria expulsus est · hoelus filius Grifíní obiít · lodouicus filius regis francie venít in anglia ad preliandum contra regem ·[115] Wenunwen obiit ·

[c536] Annus. Primus decennouennalis cicli ab in carnatione dominí mus.ccus.xvius.[116] in quo generale concilium rome celebratum est sub Innocentio .iiio .[117] In quo omnes clerici per uniuersum mundum aut in uíti aut spontanei vicesímum denarium omnium reddituum suorum reddere coacti sunt per trennium quasi in subsidium terre ierosolímítane . Laudatur ab híís dominus papa culpatur ab alíís . Pluríma precepta fuerunt ibi promulgata sed a paucis obseruata . Ibidem etiam fuit ordínatum de decímís alborum monachorum . Innocentius obiit .[118] Et intronízatus fuit honoríus .

[c538] Annus. In cuius fíne ante festum beati michaelis Iohannes rex anglie viam uniuerse carnís ingressus est .[119] vir quidem maliciosus oppressor ecclesiarum et optimatum totius regní . ut uídebatur odiosus deo et hominibus : morte repentína preuentus . de cuius morte pauci uel nulli[120] tristes effecti sunt . Post mortem ipsius legatus supramemoratus filium ipsius henricum paruum . vii . annorum apud glocestriam ut aiebant dyademate regni insigníuít . in festiuítate symonís et íude .

[c538.2] Lewelínus fuit[121] Woluedale in Ros .

[e26 1215] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xvus . particioet díuísio terrarum inter filíos magní Resi et eorum nepotes . scilicet . fílíos gríffíní Resumet owinum apud aberteíuẏ coram lewelíno tunc temporís tocius wallie monarchíam fere atque príncípatum tenente et nortwallie . et suthwallie optímatibus facta est hoc modo . Díuisa est terra ín tribus partibus lícet ínequalibus .[122] mailgoní cesserunt quasí seníorí . quod filíí griffíní partes fecerunt . ipsi electío debebatur : tres cantredí de dẏned[123] . scilicet . cantref gwartaf in termínís suís . kemmeẏs . emlyn . et peluneauc et castello de kilgarran . castellum de lanamdeurí cum kemmut hírvrín[124] .et duo kemmut de kaerdẏgan[125] . filíís autem gríffíní cesserunt castellum aberteíuẏ et castellum nantercareant[126] cum tribus cantaredís adíacentibus . Reso uero filío resi magní . castellum dínneuor . et cantrefmaur . preter kemmut de mallaen . kedwelli . carnewathlaun . cantrefbechan . et methweí . eodem anno gwenoínun filius oweín keueílauc postpositís ac despectís íuramentís . fíde . cartís . scriptís . cẏrographís . que domíno lewelíno et príncípibus ac magnatibus wallie dederat . necnon et homagío . et obsidibus . quos predicto . l(ewelino) . fecerat et dederat : Iohanni regí Anglie confederatur . quod lewelinus grauiter ferens premíssís ad eum episcopis . abbatibus .et alíís magne auctorítatís uírís cum cẏrographís et cartís tenorem confederacionís et homagíí . suí contínentibus toto nísu eum reuocare laborauít . Sed cum níchil profícere potuít : collecto exercítuet conuocatís tocius fere wallie principíbus uersus powísíam tendít et totam terram eius sibi subíugauítet optínuít eo fugato . Ipso quoque anno lodowícus primogenítus regis francíe ad instancíam confederatorum regní anglie susceptís eorum obsidibus círca festum sancte trinítatís cum magna multitudíne francorum anglíam intrauít . Iohannes uero rex anglie aduentum illius anxíe tímens et maríttíma quinque portuum cum íngentí robore armatorum custodíens . uidensque eum applícantem : marittíma deseruit .et fugam cepít uersus wíntoniamet vallem sabrine . lodowícus londoniam tendít ubi honorífice susceptus . homagía comítum et baronum qui eum ínuítauerant cepít . unícuique suum reddens . deínde paucís díebus euolutís wíntoníam tendit quod audíens rex uillam combussítet muníto castello discessít . at lodowícus castellum obsedít . quod ínfra paucos díes optínuít . extunc . I(ohannes) . rex anglie cum multís e suís . herefordiam tendít . missisque nuncíís ad regínaldum de breusa .et ad alíos princípes wallie eos sibi confederare omní modo attemptauít . et cum non ualuít : haíam et rodenouerham[127] ínuasít uillasque combussit et castella prostrauít . Coluín et croes oswald combussítet destruxít . eodem anno . Innocencius . papa . iiius . obiit .[128] cui successít honorius . iiius . In eodem anno Iohannes rex obiit . cuius corpus humatum est ín ecclesía beate marie ín wẏgornía íuxta sepulchrum gloriosi confessoris wlstaní . cuí successit henricus filius eíus . hoc anno howelus filius kenan[129] Iuuenís egregíus et omnibus amabilis uítam fíníuít . et apud aberconeweí sepultus est .

[b1238 1216] Anus ·m·cc·xvi · lewelinus princeps nortwallíe magnum excer cítum in gouer mouít et castellum abertauí primo ímpetu cepít índe cum ducibus sibi confederatís ·scilicet· mailgono et reso paruo et filíis grifíníet alíís ros adíuít sed anglici dolosiet ín o(mn)ibus fere odiosi quia ei non possent resistere ·xxiiii obsides communi consilío et con silio ·G(eruasii)· meneuensis episcopi qui wal{en}sibus magis nocuít quam profuit tradideruntet hoc condicionaliter fecerunt quod obsídes infra breue spatium pro ·mille· marcis deliberarent tocius terre potestatem ei tribueren{t} .

[b1239 1217] Anus · m cc xvii

[b1240 1218] Anus ·m·cc·xviii · barones qui homagium fecerunt lodouíco ínterfectí sunt etiam quam plurímí francorum pugnante domino pro rege[130]

[e27 1216] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xvius . lewelinus ger uasíí filius . magnum congre gauít exercitum ut regínaldum de breusa generum suum qui confederatus est regí eo derelícto dedícioní compelleret . venít ítaque usque ad uillam aberodnẏ ibíque castra metatus est . uillam uero adueníentes pedibus eius prouolutí ut eorum misereretur obníxe pos tularunt . Ipse autem misericordie non ínmemor : obsidibus ab eís acceptís uillam deserens peruenít usque ad aberthauoe castrum munítissímum quod in breuí sibi reddítum solotenus destruí fecít uillamque comburí . Inde uíctor uersus hauerfordíam tendítet turmís dispositís urbem íngredí uolentibus obuíauít eí episcopus meneuensis cum clero et populo pacem postulantes . tandem post multorum sermonum alter cacionem ad hoc consenserunt ut obsidibus de optímatum terre filíis lewelíno datís eos ín pace relínqueret usque ad statutum tempus . scilicet . festum sanctí michelis sub talí condícione sub talí condícione[131] . ut s{i}[132] flandrenses ínfra predíctum termínum a rege uel acomíte[133] succursum habere non poterant . terram cum castello lewelíno traderent (.) sequenti autem autumpno lodowicus francorum regís filíus absolutus a domíno legato anglíam relíquíd et utriusque regní oprobríís plenus cum suorum dampno non modíco gallícana cum dedecore pecíít regna .[134]

[c539] Annus. Ciuítas damíeta mense nouembris míraculose a christi anís capta est .[135] que duobus antea annís obsessa fuerat . Fuerunt autem in ea . xlv . mília armatorum ut asserebant exceptis mulieribus et paruulis . Sed plurímí fama et inedia mortuí fuerunt . Die namque qua ciuítas capta fuít inuenta fuerunt ut dicitur tria milia corpora inhumata exceptis illis quos in fluuíum precipitauerant . Inuenta autem fuit ciuítas plena díuitíís auro et argento uestibus sericis et lapidibus preciosis . Qua capta : statím archiepiscopus in ea consecratus est a domino legatoet patriarcha et ab archiepiscopis et episcop is pluribus qui ibi aderant . Willelmus marscallus vetus comes penbrochie obiit .[136] Et Geruasius episcopus men euensis . cui successit anselmus thesaurarius exoniensis . [137]

[b1241 1219] Anus m·cc·xix · lewelinus princeps tocius uallíe cum alíís ducibus mínorís potestatis sibiconfederatís ín angusto excer citum magnum ín dewet mouet et castellum arberth cum primo nutu sine ulla contencione uirís partim cesís partim captis combussít deinde castellum Wiz · ín crastíno adíuítet id idem solutís vírís cum suís armís da{t}o eís federe sine mora destruxít . postea castellum harford adíuítet totam uillam combussít et castellum debellare noluít · deinde apud pul in ros pernoctauít et totam patriam combussít · necnon omnia animalia tocius patrie in simul congregata mactare precepít · deinde penbroc uoluít adire sed ipsi pre tímore uíri fortís ad fedus habendum ducentas ma rcas pepigerunt · hoc facto ad propria saluis omnibus uirís suís redíít · obiit Willelmus marescallus seníor ·[138]

[c540] Annus. Translatio sancti thome martyris Idus Iulii .[139] Eodem anno Lewelínus filius yoruerth combussit hauerfordiam . Nonas septembris . Noua turris meneuensis ecclesie die Lune ante festum sancti martíní nemíne mortuo uel leso statim post uesperas in ruinam improuisam uersa est .

[c541] Annus. Cíuítas damíeta a sarracenís iterum dolose capta est .[140]

[b1242 1220] Anus ·m·cc xx · Resus filius Grifíni miles strenuus fortís ut hector ín armís gem ma ducum flos militum (obiit) (.) comes penbrochie ·W(illelmus)· marescallus íunior hiber niam intrauit

[c542] Annus.

[b1243 1221] Anus ·m·cc·xxi · Philippus rex francíe obiit inchristo ·[141] Willelmus comes íuuenís filíus ·W(illelmi)· marescalli comitís de ibernia redíens reuersus est ad sudwalliam ibi castella Karmerdín et aberteíuí adquísíuít et sui complices omnes ecclesias fere de deueth spoliauerunt (.)[142] Rex scocíe duxit uxorem s{o}rorem regís anglie ·[143] Crux sancta reddita estchristianís ·[144]

[b1245 1223] Anus ·m ccxxiii · lewelinus cepit castrum de witíntonumet prostrauít ·[145]

[c543] Annus. Willelmus íunior filius Willelmi collecto magno exercitu in yberniam . classe preparata sabbato palmarum apud sanctum dauid applicuít . et in septímana paschali castellum de cardigan : nullis resistentibus cepit . Símiliter et cayrmerdyn . Conuocatisque cognatiset affinibus suis comitibus et baronibus de anglia castellum de kilgarran refirmauít . Multos insultus in Walenses fecit . Confederatoque sibi conano filio hoeli predam maximam de terra de cardigan abduxit . totamque terram usque ad ayron cepít . quam custodie dicti conaní commísit .et ipse cum suis discessit .

[b1244 1222] Anus ·m·cc.xxii · Willelmus marescallus iterum hiberniam intrauít et íusticiariam tocius hiberníe accepit[146] et filios .hu(gonis)· de lacẏ · su biugauít quos ad regem anglíe ut con cordiam e(i)us ínírent adduxit ·

lowís rex francíe pictauiam pessundauit ·[147]

[b1246 1224] Anus m·ccxxiiii · castrum de bedeford captum est [148]

[c544] Annus. Henricus rex anglie filius iohannís amisit pictauiam . Et cepit castrum de bedeford .[149] Et eodem anno Willelmus marscallus cepit castrum de trumme in yberniam . et expugnauít hugonem de lacy .

[c545] Annus. In quo primo con stitutus est precentor in ecclesia meneuensi . Et inceptum fuit nouum opus maioris ecclesie sancti thome hauerfordie

[c546] Annus. In quo lodouicus rex francorum expugnauít castra comítis sancti egydííet precipue avínun . et muros eius euertit[150]

[c547] Annus. in quo maredut filius resi archydiaconus de cardigan obiit .[151] Reginaldus de breosa obiit .[152] cui successit Willelmus filius eius . Qui eodem anno captus est in Kery .

[b1247 1225] Anus m·ccxxv · henricus rex íuníor cum tocius anglie excercítu et maxímo armorum apparatu prouínciam de Kerí intra uit et castellum ibidem formauít · cuí uiriliter resistens lewelínus nortwallie princeps conuocatis ducibus sutwallíe · stragem non modicam excercituí regís intulít ·et W(illelmum)· de Breusa cepit videns que rex quod propositum suum parum ei proficeret · accepta quadam summa pecuníe ad conprincipe eo pacificato castellum inceptum fregít et uacuus domum redíít

[b1250 1228] Anus ·m·ccxxviii ·

[c548] Annus. in quo gwerra motaest inter henricum regem anglie filium iohanniset lewelínum principem Wallie in qua gwerra captusest Willelmus de breosa a dicto principe.[153] Et eodem anno exíít a captíuitate in cathedra sancti Petri .

[e28 1228] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxviiius . henrícus rex anglorum . filíís wenaínun exheredatís de powís pro ponens íus heredítaríum restítuere . wallías tendens cum tocius regní robore loco quí dicitur kerẏ castra metatus est . Conueníentes ítaque cum princípe lewelíno ex opposita nemorís parte magnates wallie qui sibi unanímíter fauebant regío exercítu[154] ín manu non ínualida restiterunt ín partem aduersam cum omní uírilitate crebríus írruentes et tandem anglorum cede et capcione armorumet equítaturarum frequentí dírepcione laudabilem ac recolendum de hostibus reportantes triumphum . Inter quosetiam . w(illielmus) . de breusa domínus brechonie Iuuenís probítatís mírande tentus a walensibus et íncarcer atus . castrum de buelth . terramque adiacentem cum pecunía pro se redímendo infíníta dicto princípi reddere compulsus est quod íncontínentí solotenus deíectum est . et deletum . tandem ex consideracione uírorum utrumque autentícorum pace inter partes reformata et castr{a}[155] quod rex construere ceperat ad nutum princípís cum dedecore prostrato : ab {in}uícem[156] discessum est . homagía p{riu}s[157] domino regí facíentibus magnatibus quí cum princípe con uenerant uníuersis . Geruasíus uero meneuensis episcopus . obiit .[158]

[b1248 1226] Anus m·cc xxvi · lewelínus princeps nordwallíe ·W(illelmum)· de Breusa pro magna summa pecuníeet pro castellís de Buelth de carcere liberauít · ad aumentum[159]etiam federís ·W(illelmo)· de Breusa filiam suam cum pro uíncialibus et castello de buelth · dedít ín uxorem · urbs Ierosolomítana a federíco[160] ímperatore et complicibuschristianís capta fuít ·[161]

[b1251 1229] Anus· m·ccxxíx · henricus rex cum excercitu suo fuit apud poresmue · comes britannie venit in angliam ·[162]

[c549] Annus. Geruasíus episcopus meneuensis obiit .[163] cui successit anselmus crassus . Et terra sancta reddita est imperatori .[164]

[b1249 1227] Anus m·cc·xxvíi lewelínus princeps nordwallíe ·W(illelmum)· de breusa pro nímía presumpcione sua et ínfamía deuicit · et postmodum morti tradidit · h(enricus)· rex anglie circa kalendas maí cum tocius anglie excercitu ad instanciam comitís britanníe mínorís ad britanniam transfretauít ·[165] regemque francíe ínqui etare cepit

[b1252 1230] Anus· m·cc xxx · obiit gilbertus comes glouerníe ·[166]

[c550] Annus. Anselmus crassusconsecratus est episcopus meneuensis .[167] Mailgun filius resi obiit . Hen ricus rex filius iohannis transfretauit ín britanniam circa festum apostulorum philippi et iacobi a portesmuth .et apud burdeus applicuít .[168] Et regem francie noluít oppugnare . sed ibi reliquit Willelmum marscallum . qui aliquantulam ibi moram faciens repatriauít .

[e29 1230] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxus. prescriptus . h(enricus) . rex anglie ut Ius suum Normanníe . Andegauíe .et píctauíe conquireret cum apparatu plenarío ad partes se transtulít tra nsmarínas ubi mortalítatís ínualescente pestilencía regalibus ín magna parte de medío sublatis . post personarum ac rerum quam incurrerat íacturam ínfínítam . rex suo fraudatus proposito ínfra díes paucos ad propria remeauít .

[b1253 1231] Anus m cc xxxi · lewelínus princeps norwallíe suís comítatus in prisís quibusdam de causís inter ipsum et regem su bortís · mungumriam brechoniam et haiam cum radenor castello solete(n)us díruptoet íncendio deuastauít · deinde uersus guenciam tendens et Karlíon ín cínerem redígens · castella de Neth et Kedwelẏet de Kardigan uilla prius a mailgono succensa · prostrauít · probís parcium illarum sibi subiugatís et fidelitace a magnatibus · lewelíno prestíta vniuersís preter quam a morgano filio hoelí anglicís confederato qui sibi íus suum hereditarium duxerant restituendum . accedens autem interím rex anglíe cum excercítu suo uersus marchiam et expensas faciens ínfínitas castellum paen de petra et calce nobilissímum construxít et armatorum multitudíne sufficientercommuníuít . obiit .W(illelmus)· marescallus .ví· iduum aprilis[169]et Ricardus frater e(i)us factus est comes penbrochie · R(icardus)· comes cornubíe desponsauit isabellam commitissam Gloucestrie · h(enricus)· rex · firmauít castrum matildís[170]·

[c551] Annus. Willelmus marscallus íunior comes penbrochie . viii . idus aprilis obiit .[171]

[e30 1231] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxius. lewelínus princeps Norwallie suís comítatus ínpresís quibusdam decanís ínter ipsum et regem subortís . mumgum bríam . brechoníam . et haíam cum castello de radennouer solotenus dírupto íncendío uastauít . deínde uer sus gwencíam tendens et carlẏon . ín cínerem redígens : castella de Nech[172] .et de kedwelli . et de kardẏgan . uilla prius a mailgone succensa prostrauít probis parcíum illarum hominibus sibi subiugatís .et fidelítate a magnatibus lewelino prestíta uníuersís preterquam a morgano filio howeli anglicís confederato qui sibi ius suum heredítaríum duxerant restítuendum . Accedens autem ínterím rex anglie cum exercítu suo uersus marchiam et exspensas facíens ínfínítas . castellum de paen de petra et calce nobilissímum construxít et armatorum multitudíne suffícíenter communíuit .[173]

[b1254 1233] Anus m·ccxxxiii[174] Ricardus comes cornubie reedificauít castellum de Radenor prius combustum ab exercítu lewelíni principís illo ut dícebatur ínconsulto sed circa fínem illius anní discordía inter dominum regem et Ricardum marescallum · orta est · vnde idem marescallus cum índignacione magna a curia recessít et ad walenses venít et fidelitate íurata eísdem · acceptís quibusdam ex illís secum · villam de monemu multís ex suís uírís interfectís combussít et castra de kerdíue et de penkelli de bulkedínas de gevenu et de blanelleuení cepit . lewelínus princeps uillas de brechoníaet de clua combussít et castrum quod uocabatur castellhithoet cepítet destruxít necnonet uillam de albo monasterío ín cínerem redegít ·

[c552] Annus. In quo fuit secun da fuga apud cayrmerdyn . et in quo [175] resus creg obiit [176] . Tanta siccitas fuit per totam angliam ut per totam estatem a mense martio usque ad octobrem . paucissíme pluuíarum gutte cadebant super terram

[c553] Annus.

[c554] Annus. Hoc anno henricus de trirbeleuik succe succurrit castrum de cayrmerdin obsessum a Ricardo marscalloet a Walensibus . Qui ueníens per alueum fluuii tewy in quadam naue fregit pontem de cayrmerdyn . Vbi plures de obstantibus capti sunt . plures submersi .

[e31 1233] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxiiius. rícardus comes cornubíe reedífícauít castrum de radennouer príus combustum . ab exercitu . l(ewelini) . princípís illo ut dícebatur ínconsulto . sed círca fínem illius anní díscordía ínter regem et rícardum marescallum orta : Idem marescallas cum índígnacione magna a curia recessít et ad walenses uenít et fidelítate íurata eísdem . acceptís quibusdam ex illis[177] secum . uillam de monemu multís de suís ínterfectís combussít . et castra de kerdif . de penkellẏ . de bulkedínas . de Geuennẏ . et de blaenlleueẏn cepít . eodem anno . l(ewelinus) . princeps uillas de brechonia et de clua . combussít et castrum quod uocatur castelhẏchoet cepít et destruxít necnon et villam de albo monasterío ín cínerem redegít .

[b1255 1234] Anus ·m·cc·xxxiiií Egregíus penbrochie ·R(icardus)· marescallus aceptís quibusdam de suís secum militibus in hiberniam nauígauít totam terram illam proponens ín manu fortí et brachio extento ut erat vir probus et potens ín armís magnus et terribilís sapiens et facundus pius atque forme elegantís sibi su bíugare · sed cum quadam díe suos debellaret aduersarios et eos ut leo prouocatus ad iram a dextriset a sínistris proster neret et interficeret · suí barones cum militibus · sue nature non ínmemores fraude pre locuta quod eum hostibus traderent illum in bello línquentes fugam fínxerunt et síc eum aduersariorum fustibus et gladíís tradiderunt vbi conf{ra }ctus fuit hostium íctibus et lanceís ab ímo usque ad summum perforatus ad ultímum tentuset sic post paucos dies spiritum deo reddidít cuius amissionem planxit dominus rex cum nímío dolore et omnes optímates sui multo tempore ·[178] cuí in hereditatem successít magister Gilbertus frater suus ·[179] íuuenís elegantissímus et potens cui dominus rex · nil de factis fratris suí sibi ímputando · omne íus suum benigno animo dedít et concessít · Rees crẏc apud landeilauuaur vitam fíníuít cuius corpus episcopus meneuiam iuxta patrem suum Resum ·scilicet· magnum sepulture traditur a domino anselmo meneuensis episcopo cum díro planctu et honore maximo .[180] lewelínus liberauít Grifínum filium suum quem antea per sex annos in carcerem tenueratet dedít ei medietatem terre que voca(t)ur llẏen · Katwalan filius mailgon sumpto religionís habitu apud cumhẏr obiit · Mailgun filíus mailgun edíficauít castellum de trefẏlan ·

[e32 1234] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxiiiius. Rícardus marescallus Comes egregíus penbrochie acceptís quibusdam de suís secum mílítibus in hẏberníam nauígauít . totam terram illam proponens ín manu fortí et brachío extento . ut erat uír potens ín armís . magnus ac terribililis[181] . sapiens et facundus . píus atque forme elegantis sibí subíugare . sed cum quadam díe suos debellaret aduersaríos et eos ut leo prouocatus ad íram a dextriset a sínístrís prosterneret et ínterfíceret suí barones cum mílítibus sue nature non ínmemores fraude prelocuta quod eum hostibus tradiderent illum ín bello relínquentes fugam fínxerunt . et síc eum aduersaríorum fustibuset gladíís tradiderunt . ubi confractus . fuít hostíum íctibus et lanceís ab ẏmo usque ad summum perforatus ad ultímum tentus et síc post paucos díes spiritum deo reddidit . cuius amíssíonem planxít domínus rex cum nímío dolore et omnes optímates suí multo tempore . cuí ín heredítatem successít magister Gilbertus frater suus Iu(ue)nís elegantissímus et potens cuí dominus rex níchil de factís fratris suí sibi ímputando . omne Ius suum benígno anímo dedít et concessit . eodem anno resus crích apud lantailounaur[182] uítam fíníuít . cuius corpus apud meneuiam íuxta patrem suum . resum . .scilicet. magnum sepulture tradítur á domíno Anselmo . meneuensi episcopo cum díro planctu et honore maxímo . eodem anno . dominus . l(ewelinus) . liberauít griffínum filíum suum quem antea per sex annos ín carcerem tenuerat .et dedít eí medíetatem terre sue quod uocatur thleẏn .

[b1256 1235] Anus ·m·cc·xxxv · owinus filíus grifíní vir nobilís genere moribus perditus largitate mirabilí fere íncomparalís fama excellentissíma perspicuus apud domum de strata florida die mercuríí post octabas ephiphaníe fíne glorioso quieuít ibique iuxta fratrem suum Resum ín capitulo monachorum extat tumulatus ·[183] Rex anglie filiam comítís brebancíe ín uxorem accepit et apud londoniam · presentibus episcopis comítibus baronibus · quamplurímis nupcias sple(n)dide celebrauít[184] ·G(ilbertus)· marescallus · desponsauít sororem regís scocíe ·[185]

[c555] Annus. Henricus rex anglie filius iohannis duxit in uxorem Elianoram filiam comítis pro uíncie .[186] Et Gilbertus comes penbrochie sororem regis scotie .[187]

[e33 1235] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxvus. Owenus filius gri ffíní uír nobilis genere . moribus predítus . largítate mírabilí fere íncom{par}abilís[188] famaque excellentíssíma perspícuus apud domum de strata florida díe mercuríí post octauas epiphanie fíne glorioso quíeuít . ibique íuxta fratrem suum resum ín capitulo monachorum extat tumulatus .[189] eodem anno henricus rex anglíe filíam comítís brabancíe[190] ín uxorum accepít . et apud londoniam presentibus episcopis . comítibus et baronibus quamplurímís nupcías splendide celebrauít .[191]

[b1257 1236] Anus ·m·cc.xxxvi · Gwenllian filia Resi magní vxor edneveth vechan ·obiit · mailgon filíus mailgonis círca festum sancti michaelis accessít ad principem lewelínum et pecunía ínterueniente non medica[192] fecit maredut filium owení ad reddendum sibi meuenít pro penarth quo habito · ad spoliandum monachos de strata florida se prepar auít uidelicet de terrís de stra t meuríc quas suí antecessoreset ipsemet eisdem monachís dederant . eodem anno madocus filius Grifíní dominus de mailaur et owínus filius maredut filíí Robertí de kedeweighc ·obierunt · henricus rex anglie duxit vxorem alienoram filiam comitis prouíncíe apud cantuariam per dominum eadmundum archiepiscopum[193]

[c556] Annus. Frater aníanus predicauít de cruce in westwallia .

[e34 1236] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxvius. Gwenthlían filia resi magní . uxor ednech vachan . obiit .[194] eodem anno circa festum sancti michelis accessít maelgun filius maelgonís ad pri ncípem lewelínum et pecunía ínterueinente[195] non modíca fecít cogi mareduch . filium oweín ad reddendum sibi meuenich pro pennarch quo habito : ad spolíandos monarchos de strata florida se preparauít uidelícet de terrís de stratmeurích quas suí antecessores et ips emet eisdem monachis dederant .[196] eodem anno madocus filius gri ffíní domínus de mailaur . obiit .

[b1258 1237] Anusíi . obíít domina Iohanna filia regis anglíeet vxor lewelíní principis wallíe[197] cuius corpus sepulture tra ditur apud haber cum diro planctu et honore non modí{c}o · Iohannes comes cestrie gener suus et kenwerícus domíni Resi magni filius obierunt · rex cepít ín auxilium tricesímam mobilium ·[198]

[c557] Annus. Otho romane ecclesie legatus uenit in angliam .[199]

[e35 1237] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxviius. domína Iohanna filia regís anglie uxor lewelíní princípís wallie . obiit . cuius corpus sepulture tradítur apud aber cum díro planctu et honore non modíco .[200] eodem anno obiit . Iohannes comes cestríe gener suus . hoc anno uenít dominus otho cardínalis ín angliam legatus . a domino gregorío papa nono .[201]

[b1259 1238] Anus ·m·cc·xxxviii · In cra stíno sancti luce ewangeliste íurauerunt omnes principes wallie fidelitatem domino dauid filio dominí lewelíní princípís apud stratam floridam · Grifut ẏal dolo maredut fratris sui ut dicebatur occisus est · símon de montefortí duxít ín uxorem alienoram comitissam penbrokie ·[202] Ricardus de clare duxit uxorem ·m(atilda)·[203] filiam .I(ohanni). de lací comitís líncolníe[204]

[c558] Annus.

[e36 1238] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxviiius. Iurauerunt omnes príncípes wallie fidelítatem domino . dauid . filio domini lewlini princípís apud stratamfloridam[205] .[206]

[b1260 1239] Anus m·cc·xxxíx · obiit Grifínus filius maredut · Grifínus filíus lewelíní bellica uice captus a dauid · fratre suo (.) Nascitur Edwardus regís filíus[207]

[e37 1239] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xxxixus. griffínus filius meredut . obiit .[208] et griffinus filius lewelini bellíca uíce captus a dauid fratre suo .

[b1261 1240] Anus ·m·cc·xl · obiit ille magnus achilles secundu s · dominus ·scilicet· lewelinus · filius geruasíí · filíi owíní · guẏnet tunc princeps wallíe recepto habítu monachilí ín domo de aberconuẏ cum magna deuocione cuius opera sum ínsuffíciens narrare · hostes enim suos clipeo et hasta domabat religíosís pacem seruabat .christi pauperibus uictum et uestitum errogabat termínos suos bellico funículo dilatabat bonam iusticíam secundum merita sua cum amore et tímore dei omnibus exhibebat · terrore debito uel amore omnes sibi allígabat · cui successít in heredem dauid filius e(i)us de Iohanna fília Iohannis regís anglíe · qui mense maío e(i)usdem homagíum fecít henríco regis anglíe · apud glowcestriam et barones wallie post ipsu m quo mense anglicí non ínmemores sue consuetudínís destínauerunt walterum mar(e)scallum cum magno excer citu ad fírmandum castellum de Kardigan ín manu forti et robore non ínualido · comes cornubíe profectus est ad terram sanctam[209]

[c559] Annus. Omnes magnates Wallie fecerunt homagium regi anglie . Lewelinus princeps nortwallie obiit .[210]et griffinus filius eius captus est a dauid fratre suo et incarcer atus . Walterus marscallus edificauít turrím de cardigan .

[c560] Annus.

[c561] Annus. Walterus marscallus cepit terras pertínentes ad honorem de cayrmerdyn pro Gilberto fratre suo .

[e38 1240] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xlus. obiit magnus ille secundus achilles . dominus lewelínus filius geruasíí filii owení gweneth tunc princeps wallie recepto habito monachalí ín domo de aberconewaí cum magna deuocione cuius opera sum ínsufficíens narrare . hostes enim suos clípeo et hasta domabat . relígíosís pacem seruabat . christi[211] pauperibus uíctum et uestítum erogabat bonam íustícíam secundu m meríta sua cum amore et tímore deí omnibus exíbebat terrore debíto uel amore omnes sibi allígabat . cuí successít ín heredem . dauid . filius eíus de Iohanna filia regis anglie . qui mense maio eiusdem homagíum fecít henríco regí anglie apud gloucestríam et barones wallie post ipsum . quo mense anglící non ínmemores sue consuetudínís destínauerunt walterum marescallum cum magno exercítu ad fírmandum castrum de kardígan ín manu fortí et robore non ínualído .[212]

[b1262 1241] Anus ·m·cc·xli Recessít oto legatus de regno anglíe quí cum magna multitudíne archiepiscoporum episcoporum albatum[213] ceterorumque religiosorum ab imperatore captus fuít propter guerram diu existentem inter ipsum imperatorem et dominum papam gregorium nouum · Rex anglíe omnes walenses sibi subiugauít · castrumque firmauít ín fortí rupe iuxta disserth ín tegeẏgell obsidibus acceptís a dauid nepote suo pro guyneth sibi relicto ipsum dauid necando usque londoniam ad concilium celebre ibi constitutum · restituendo grifíno filío gwennunwen Ius suum hereditarium in powís · et filíís maredut filíí kenan ín meẏronnẏt · Dauid filius lewelíni tradidít Grifínum fratrem suum carceri domini regis

[c562] Annus. Gilbertus marscallus comes penbrochie obiit . iiii°. kalendas íulíí .[214] Et eodem anno Walterus marscallus factus est comes penbrochie . circa festum symonis et íude .

[e39 1241] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xlius. recessít otho legatus de regno anglie . qui cum maxíma[215] multítudíne . archíepiscoporum . episcoporum . abbatum . ceterorumque relígíosorum ab Imperatore captus fuít . propter gwerram díu existentem ínter ípsum Imperatorem et dominum papam . gre goríum . ixum[216] . eodem anno rex anglie omnes walenses sibi subíugauít . castrumque firmauít ín fortí rupe iuxta díssarth ín tegeígell obsidíbus acceptís a dauid nepote suo pro gwíneth . Sibi relícto ipsum dauid uocando apud londoniam . ad concilium celebre ibi constítutum restítuendo griffíno filio gwennaínun ius suum heredítaríum ín powís et filíís mereduc filíi kenan in meíronẏth .[217] eodem anno tradidít dauid filius lewelíni griffínum fratrem suum carcerí domini regis .[218] Item gregorius . ixus . obíít .[219]

[b1263 1242] Anus ·m cc·xlii · henricus rex anglie transfretauít ín pictauiam proponens terras quas rex francíe ei abstulerat quod illo anno míníme potuít ·[220] eodem anno fuerunt castra fírmata ín wallia a domino mailgone ín garthgrugẏn a domino Iohanne de moneniu ín buellthet a domino R(ogero) de mortuo mari ín maelenẏt · Grifinus ·filius· maredut filíi resi tunc archidiaconus de kardigan · Gilbertus marescallus apud wares [221] in quodam torníamento · obiit[222] cui successít in hereditatem walterus frater eíus ·

[c563] Annus. Henricus rex filius iohannís uenít cum exercitu totius anglie uersus nortwalliam usque Rudlan . et misit nuncios ad dauid filiusleo lewelín ut ad eum ueníret et adduceret secum griffinum fratrem suum quem tenuít in carcere . et cum non posset resistere regi : fregit castellum suum de degannoeet alia . et tandem uenít ad regem cum fratre suo grifino . quem dedit in manu regis et omnes qui cum eo erant incarcerati quos rex adduxit londoniam . et fecit ibidem custodiri . Eodem anno H(enricus) rex idem transfretauít in gasconiam circa festum sancti iohannis ante portam latínam .[223] Captus fuit Walterus de marisco in insula de londey[224] .

[e40 1242] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xliius. transfretauít henricus rex anglie ín píctauíam[225] proponens terras quas rex francíe eí abstulerat quod illo anno míníme potuít[226] eodem anno fuerunt castra firmata ín wallie a domino mailgone ín carthguígẏn[227] . a domino Iohanne de monemu in buelth . a domino . r(oger) . de mortuo marí . in maeleníth[228] . eodem anno . obiit[229]. griffinus filius mareduc filii resí tunc Archídíaconus de kardigan .[230]

[b1264 1243] Anus ·m·cc xliii · henricus rex anglie redíít de burdegalís cum regína sanus et íncolímís · alienora regína peperít filiam in uasconía nomine margaretam[231]

[c564] Annus. grifut filius lewelín mortuus est in carcere apud londoniam .[232] siue dolo seu aliter ignoratur . Henricus rex anglie rediens de gasconía applicuit in angliam circa festum exaltacionis sancte crucis .[233] Et dauid filius lewelín combussit cayrmerdyn .

[e41 1243] Annus . mus . ccus . xliiius. redíít henricus rex anglie de burdegalis cum regína sanus et incolumís .

[b1265 1244] Anus ·m cc xlíiíí · Resus filíus Resi creki obiit ·[234] Grifínus filíus lewelíní in carcere domini regis londoníís detentus funem per qua ndam fenestram transiecít ut ita euadere possit · sed ínfortunío accidente interram cecidít et collo ac cruribus confractís spiritum ex(h)alauit . quo audito dauid frater e(i)us ira commotus suís congregatís magnatibus in hostes suos tanquam leena raptís catulis suís irruít expellens eos omnio afínibus[235] suís exceptís qui ín municionibus et castellís · deinde omnes principes wallíe sibi adunauít ·preter· tres ·scilicet· Grifínum filium madauc et Grifínum filium wennunwen et morgan filium howel · quibus postea dampna et grauamína intulit non modíca · maredut filius robertí obiit sumpto religionís habitu apud stratam floridam · Alíenora regína peperit filium edmundum ·[236]

[c565] Annus. Senescallus de cayrmerdyn obsedit castrum de deresloyn . Venit Walterus marscallus apud hauerfordiam .

[e42 1244] Annus . mus . ccus . xliiiius. Resus[237] filius resi crích . obiit .[238] eodem anno griffínus filius lewelíní ín carcere domini regis detentus londoniis[239] . funem per quamdam fenestram transíecít ut íta euadere posset sed ínfortunío accídente ín terram cecídít . et collo ac cruribus confractís spiritum exalauít . quo audíto : dauid frater eíus íra commotus suís congregatís magnatibus ín hostes suos tanquam lééna raptis catulis suís írruít expellens eos omnío a fínibus suis exceptís híís qui erant ín munícionibus et cas tellis .[240] . deínde omnes princípes wallie sibi adunauít . preter tres . scilicet . Griffínum filium madauc . et griffinum filium wenaínun . et morgan filíum howeli quibus postea dampnaet grauamína íntulít non modíca .[241]

[b1266 1245] Anus ·m cc xlv · conqui euerunt heredes willielmi marescallí ín pace (.) henricus rex omnes walenses su bíugare volens magno congregato excercítu venit usque de ganiuye[242]et firmato ibi castello ín angliam redíít · vnde et ín memoriam factí multa e suís mortuorum cadauera per nortwalliam reliquit inhumata tam ín mari quam in terra ·[243] Posítum est fundamentum westmonasteríí ·

[c566] Annus. Walterus marscallus obiit . v°. kalendas decembris .[244] Henricus rex anglie mouít gwerramcontra dauid filium lewelín .et in illo anno mortuus est dauid .[245] Imperator fredericus depos itus est .[246] Maredut filius Res depredauít uillam de cayrmerdyn . Dominus herebertus filius mahii ínterfectus fuít a Walensibus in glamorgan in quodam clíuo prope castrum quod fuít morganí cam .

[e43 1245] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xlvus. conquieuerunt heredes willielmi marescallí ín pace .[247] eodem anno henrícus rex anglie omnes walenses sibi subíugauít re[248] uolens magno congregato exercítu uenít usque ganneu . et firmato ibidem castello ín angliam uenít . vnde et ín memoriam factí mu(lt)a[249] e suís mortuorum cadauera per nordwalliam relíquíd ínhumata tam in marí quam in terra .[250]

[b1267 1246] Anus ·m cc xlvi · obíít ille clipeus wallíe dauid filíus lewelíní apud aber cuius corpus cum fletibus multís sepulture traditur apud aberconuẏ ·[251] cuí successerunt in heredem filíí fratris sui grifíní ·scilicet· owínus et lewelinus quí prudentum uírorum consilío terram eque inter se diuíserunt · Nicolaus de molẏns senescallus de karmerdín ad terram mailgonís cum míro excercitu accessít mailgone fugato usque ad meronnẏth · dictus tamen nicholaus ibidem moram non fecít sed terrís post se in regia potestate relictis cum iam dicto excercítu peruenít usque degannuẏ vnde predictos Iuuenes · manu ualida exheredare proponebat · et excercítibus tandem circumquaque super dictos íuuenes irruentibus · ipsi se díuíne commendantes voluntatí · se cum suís more machabeorum disponente deo in montibus saluauerunt in dempnes quo excercitu redeunte · mailgun in conductu predicti Nicholaí ad regem accessít · qui uíx regiam obtínuít gratiam (.) Ita tamen quod nichil de propria hereditate habuít preter duos commotos ·scilicet· Geneurglín et hẏscoid · obiit Radulphus de mortuo marí · obiít comes walterus marescallus · apud castrum Godri[252] (.) eodem anno obiit anselmus marescallus · apud striguil ·[253] quorum corpora apud tinternam sunt tumulata ·

[c567] Annus. Exercitus demetice domino nícholao de meules et gri fíno filio gweno guenoynwyn ducibus transíuerunt fluuium de deuí et per maximam partem nortwallie nullo obstante seuetiam contradicente .

[e44 1246] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xlvius. obíít ille clipeus wallie . dauid . filius lewelíní apud aber . cuius corpus cum fletibus multís sepulture traditur íuxta patrem suum apud aberconu . cuí successerunt ín heredem filíí fratris suí griffíní . scilicet . owínus[254] et lewelínus . Qui prudentum consilío uírorum terram eque inter se díuíserunt .[255] eodem anno . Nicholaus de molíns senescallus de kermerdin ad terram mailgonís[256] cum míro exercítu accessít . mailgone fugato usque ad meíromẏth[257] . dictus tamen Nicholaus ibidem moram non fecít sed terrís post se ín regía potestate relíctís : cum íam dícto exercítu peruenít usque degannuẏ . vnde predíctos Iuuenes manu ualida exheredare proponebat . et exercítibus tandem circumquaque super díctos íuuenes írrúentíbus : ipsi se díuíne commendantes uoluntatí se cum suís more machabeorum dissponente domino[258] ín montibus saluauerunt índempnes . Quo exercítu redeunte : mailgun ín conductu predíctí Nicholai ad regem accessít . quí uíx regíam optínuít gratiam . íta tamen quod nichil de propria heredítate habuít preter duos commotos . scilicet . Geneuerglẏn .et Hischoeth .[259] eodem anno . obiit . radulphus de mortuo marí .[260]

[b1268 1247] Anus ·m·cc·xlvíi ·

[c568] Annus. Terremotus magnus fuit in britannnía et ybernía . quo terremotu magna pars ecclesie meneuensis . corruít . et plura edificia in patria . et rupes scisse sunt . xi°. kalendas martíí . Anselmus meneuensis episcopus obiit .[261] cuí successit magister thomas wallensis . Fur quidam íntrauít ecclesi am meneuensem . et eam uestibus ornament(is)[262]et ceteris rebus spoliauit .et spolia in rupibus maritimís abscondit . Custodes uero eccles ie super hoc dolentes . impíngebatur enim eis a quibusdam : deum beatumque dauid patronum loci suppliciter orauerunt ut eos sicut erant innocentes demonstrarent . Quadam autem die non multum post . cum post pra ndium sacrista nomine madauc de hospicio suo ad ecclesiam iret : hostium ecclesie aperuit et locum in quo ornamenta erant intrans : fure in medio ornamentorum stantem et calicem aureum in manu tenentem inuenít . Sacrista uero super hoc admírans ait . O fur infelix quid hic facis : quod te infortuníum huc adduxit : tu uasaet ornamenta istius ecclesie nuper amíssa furtiue rapuisti : Furconfitens et non negans ait . Ego uere rapuí . Prosiliens sacrista abripuit ei cultellum quod ad corrigiam suam habebat . et eum captum coram clericoet populo deduxit . Clerus et populus pro tanto míraculo plaudentes : deumet sanctum dauid ympniset cantiacis collaudarunt . Mortalitaset fames magna in britannía et in ybernía .

[e45 1247] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xlviius. howelus assaphiensis[263] apud Oxoniam ínter fratres predícatores . obiit . cuíus corpus sepulture traditur in ecclesia eorundem cum debíta ueneracione[264] . In eodem anno factus est terre motus magnus per uníuersam regíonem .[265] hoc eodem anno . obiit . Anselmus meneuensis episcopus .[266]

[b1269 1248] Anus ·m·cc xlviii ·

[c569] Annus. Partita fuit terra comítis marscalli ínter tres filias suas . Consecratus fuit thomas Wallensis meneuensis episcopus . viii . kalendas augusti .[267]

[b1270 1249] Anus ·m·cc·xlíx · capta fuít dameta a lodouico rege francíe[268]

[c570] Annus. Lodouicus rex fra ncorum exíuít insulam cypri uersus terram sanctam cum magno nauigio christianorum . xiiii . kalendas Iuníí .et applicuít cum nauigio suo in egyptum in portu damíete . vto . kalendas Iuníí .[269]et deuictis per dei gra tiam sarracenis cíuítatem illam cepit .

[c571] Annus. Fractus fuit pons de kay(r)merdyn per oppressionem glaciei .

[e46 1248 (1249)] Annus . domini . mus . ccus . xlviiius[270] . dissponente domíno qui non deserít sperantes ín se . capta fuít damíeta a lodowíco rege francíe .[271]

[b1271 1250] Anus ·m·cc·l ·

[c572] Annus. Destructus fuit lodouicus rex francie in terra sancta et captus per paganos .[272]

[1] 1190 (Runciman, HC3)

[2] = P 1190, first item.

[3] Read obsidionem; in the MS the word is broken across two lines with no apparent ligature.

[4] April – August 1191 (Runciman HC3); see also c512.

[5] 19 or 20 November 1190 (HBC); also noted in c512, e2, and P 1191 (fourth item).

[6] I.e. Nevern. This would appear to be the same as e3 and the sixth item in P 1191 (= R & S). 'Kemmer' of c512 is apparently an error; possibly referring to Cymer Castle, near Dolgellau, some 80 miles north of Nevern. E has no equivalent of P 1192.

[7] See note 6.

[8] Punctus elevatus , henceforth indicated by a colon.

[9] The same form as in S ('castell Dyneuur'), reflecting a Latin *castellum de Neuer (= R); see b1213 and c512.

[10] E persists in this spelling, excercit(us) for exercit(us), down to e9.2.

[11] 13 March 1194 (HBC)

[12] Noted in c516 and e6 (this item is not in P, R or S).

[13] Read xcus

[14] filiis is omitted?

[15] P , R, S, B and C all name the castle Roger de Mortimer built as Castle Cymaron.P kymaron; B (s.a. 1195) cameron; C (c516.2) camaron.

[16] Read Rotri .

[17] exiit edictum . . . pretii = Annales de Waverleia, s.a. MCXCVI (Luard 1865, 250).

[18] = P 1196, third item.

[19] P , t.201b, & R, (G)ruffud abat ystrat marchell (i.e. Strata Marcella); S, abat y Trallwng (i.e. Welshpool, which is near Strata Marcella); Strathflur is apparently erroneous.

[20] 28 April 1197 (HBC)

[21] Erroneous, see c520.

[22] 28 April 1197 (HBC)

[23] Read exicium (see Jones 1946).

[24] A veiled reference to the poet Publius Papinius Statius (c.45–96 AD) and his twelve-book epic The Thebaid.

[25] A veiled reference to the poet Virgil. Both this and the reference to Statius are made explicitly in R [186b], Ystas ystoriawr and Feryll vard.

[26] Read Tidei .

[27] Read filii .

[28] Precepit . . . roborari = Annales de Waverleia s.a. MCXCVIII (Luard 1865, 251).

[29] 11 July 1198 (HBC); mo.cco. in later hand in margin.

[30] cui succes(sit) Gauf(ri)dus continues in margin (Hand 1).

[31] Read magna animi (see Jones 1946).

[32] This cognomen not in P.

[33] i.e. de Vere

[34] 24 December 1198 (HBC)

[35] i.e. Giles de Braose; 24 September 1200 (HBC)

[36] 27 May 1199 (HBC)

[37] 6 April 1199 (HBC)

[38] read exercitum .

[39] Obitus reg~ ric(a)~ in later hand in right margin.

[40] Before 15 January 1204 (ODNB)

[41] 1215/16: the order gained papal approval in January 1216 (Renard 1977.)

[42] recte regi

[43] Innocencius papa . . . hac accione quievit . Compare Annales de Waverleia, s.a. MCCI (Luard 1865, 253).

[44] recte Kilkeran

[45] 1 August 1202 (OHE Poole)

[46] The contraction mark over the u perhaps intended to indicate -eru- ?

[47] 7 December 1203 (HBC).

[48] 2 or 3 April 1203 (OHE Poole); see also Annales de Margan s.a. MCCIV (Luard 1864, 27).

[49] 7 December 1203 (HBC).

[50] i.e. John de Courcy

[51] 20 or 21 October 1204 (HBC)

[52] By June 1204 (OHE Poole, 384)

[53] 13 July 1205 (HBC)

[54] MS inotuíssz

[55] 1 October x 20 December 1206 (HBC).

[56] 17 June 1207 (HBC).

[57] dittograph sic in MS

[58] 23 March 1208 (OHE (Poole); Cheney 1948).

[59] 1 Nov 1206 (HBC)

[60] 13 July 1205 (HBC)

[61] 1 June – 12 December 1206 (HBC).

[62] Mutacio monete facta est = Annales de Wintonia s.a. MCCV (Luard 1865, 79).

[63] = wording in R; P has 'the Monday before Ascension Thursday' ( duwllun kyn difyeu kyfarchauel; Jones 1952, 82).

[64] A parallel of Annales de Waverleia s.a. MCCVII (Luard 1865, 258f). ( Postea generaliter statuit . . . ab hac exactione liber fuit ordo Cisterciensis .)

[65] 17 June 1207 (HBC).

[66] 23 March 1208 (OHE (Poole); Cheney 1948).

[67] Read excluserat (see Jones 1946).

[68] Noted in c528. The year 1207 has been omitted by E , P, R & S, which go one year in arrears for the next five years, after which the chronology is corrected in P, R & S, where the events of 1212 have been put under the two years 1211 and 1212 (see note in Jones 1952, p.196). E continues in arrears down to its year 1216.

[69] Gerard (or Girard) of Athée, sheriff of Gloucester; entered Wales on 18 April 1208 (Rickaby 2011).

[70] Iorwerth ab Einion Clud, aka Iorwerth Clud?

[71] 5 January 1209 (HBC)

[72] 1209 (Oram 2011)

[73] Read O. for Owein.

[74] 1209 (Moorman 1988)

[75] recte breosa

[76] 16/20 June – 24/26 August 1210 (HBC)

[77] P (t.216a) ygkylch ysulgwyn, about Whitsun.

[78] nota malo written in cursive hand in the right margin next to these lines.

[79] Read Ibique (MS. Ipsique with ibi written at the end of the line in the margin).

[80] Read inauditis .

[81] Read adueniens

[82] See also D, d38. s.a. mccxi: Rex Iohannes walliam sibi subegit et leges Anglicis imposuit .

[83] (m) cc.xíí in later hand in margin.

[84] Gruffudd ab Ifor Glamorgan.

[85] Read deganno

[86] P , R & S say the boy was not yet seven years old.

[87] i.e. Shrewsbury.

[88] = P 1212, first item. P, R & S locate this battle in Spain (most probably a reference to the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, 16 July 1212).

[89] offert rex . . . marcarum = Annales de Waverleia s.a. MCCXIII (Luard 1865, 275).

[90] 1213 (OHE (Poole); Painter 1949)

[91] i.e. Rhys Ieuanc ap Gruffudd

[92] i.e. Rhys Fychan ap Rhys.

[93] i.e. Holywell.

[94] read dewaluernn, i.e. Tafolwern ( < dywal + gwern; Owen and Morgan 2007, s.n.).

[95] The battle of Bouvines, 27 July 2014. (OHE Poole)

[96] 13 October 1214 (HBC)

[97] 18 November 1215 (HBC)

[98] July 1214 (Turner 2009)

[99] Early July 1214; iunii here an error for iulii (Cheney 1948; Church 2003)

[100] 1214 (HBC)

[101] 21 June 1215 (HBC)

[102] 27 July 1214 (OHE (Poole); Duby 1973). Marginal note:no(ta) de bello de bouuines. an no . mo.cco.xiiiio at the foot of column 151vb (Hand 1?).

[103] Emend to parc[es extrem]as (see Jones 1946).

[104] 1215 (OHE (Poole)

[105] 1215 (OHE (Poole))

[106] 4 March 1215 (OHE (Poole))

[107] 20 May 1216 (Church 2003)

[108] Insertion mark here for this word added by Hand 1 in left margin.

[109] 29 May 1216 (Church 2003)

[110] Autumn 1217 (OHE (Powicke))

[111] Read insurexerunt .

[112] Giles de Braose (HBC)

[113] P (t.231a), jorwerth abat o tall (tal y llychau superscript over tall);R, Ioruerth; S, Jerwerth.

[114] The second p of princeps has been added postscriptum above the line.

[115] 21 May 1216 (OHE Poole)

[116] 1216 (Wallis 1999)

[117] November 1215 (Leclercq 1910; Miller, Vandome and McBrewster 2010)

[118] 16 July 1216 (HD)

[119] 18 or 19 October 1216 (HBC)

[120] MS nll’i

[121] ap ud in later hand in margin.

[122] P has no equivalent ofDíuisa est terra ín tribus partibus lícet ínequalibus .

[123] Read Dyued .

[124] P says, and Mallaen, and the manor of Myddfai.

[125] P names these commots as Gwynioydd and Mabwynion.

[126] Read Nanterrareant .

[127] Read radenoueram i.e. Radnor.

[128] 16 July 1216 (HD).

[129] Hywel ap Gruffudd ap Cynan (P, R & S).

[130] Possibly a reference to the fall of Lincoln, 20 May 1217.

[131] dittograph .

[132] The i of si is blotted out.

[133] Read a comite .

[134] E omits the years 1218 to 1227.

[135] 5 Nov 1219 (Runciman, HC3)

[136] 14 May 1219 (HBC); also noted in b1241 (last item).

[137] Struck through in MS.

[138] This notice of the death of William Marshal the Senior, and a note of the return of the Cross to the Christians similar to that in b1243, are both found in the version of the Winchester-Waverley annals in BL Cotton MS. Vespasian E.4 (Liebermann 1879, 188–9).

[139] 7 July 1220 (OHE (Powicke))

[140] 8 Sep 1221 (Runciman, HC3)

[141] 14 July 1223 (Bradbury 1997)

[142] 1223 (ODNB).

[143] 19 June 1221 (HBC)

[144] Crux sancta reddita est christianís . See fn. 136; Liebermann 1879, 189.

[145] March 1223 (ODNB).

[146] 2 May 1224 (HBC); see also B, b1242

[147] July 1224 (ODNB).

[148] 15 August 1224 (OHE Powicke).

[149] 15 August 1224 (OHE (Powicke); Ridgeway 2004)

[150] 12 September 1226 (Sibly and Sibly 2003)

[151] 1227 (HBC)

[152] 1227 (OHE (Powicke); Turner 2004)

[153] 1228 (Maund 2006)

[154] The last minim of exercitu has an upward flick over it as if an í.

[155] The last character of castr~ is blotted out.

[156] The first characters of this word are blotted out.

[157] The middle of this word is blotted out.

[158] E omits the year 1229, for which the P, R & S have merely the obit. for Iorwerth, bishop of Mynyw. Bishop Iorwerth, aka Gervase, died before 27 January 1229 (HBC). Noted in c549.1.

[159] recte augmentum

[160] recte frederico

[161] 1229 (Runciman HC3)

[162] Liebermann 1879, 190, s.a. 1229: Henricus rex cum exercitu suo post festum santi Michaelis fuit aput Portesmue. Comes Britannie venit in Angliam . Compare Luard 1865, 85.

[163] 27 January 1229 (HBC)

[164] May 1229 (Runciman, HC3)

[165] 2–3 May 1230 (OHE Powicke; HBC).

[166] 25 October 1230 (HBC).

[167] 9 February 1231 (HBC).

[168] May – October 1230 (HBC).

[169] 6 April 1231 (OHE Powicke; HBC). Liebermann 1879, 191; Luard 1865, 86.

[170] i.e. Painscastle. Liebermann 1879, 191; Luard 1865, 86.

[171] 6 April 1231 (HBC).

[172] Read Neth .

[173] = B, b1253, first item (s.a. 1231); from this annal onwards there is a close resemblance between items in B and E. P 1231, third item (= R & S), contains similar information but is not a direct parallel.

[174] B and E omit the year 1232. P, R & S note the deaths of John de Breos, the (unnamed) earl of Chester (Ranulph 'de Blundeville'), and of Abraham, bishop of St Asaph.

[175] anno added above quo (Hand 1).

[176] 1234 (HBC)

[177] ex is at the end of a line and has a ligature mark after it, as if to read exillis.

[178] 16 April 1234

[179] 11 June 1234 (HBC)

[180] 1234 (HBC)

[181] Read terribilis .

[182] sic in MS.

[183] 1235 (HBC)

[184] February 1235, Isabella, sister of Henry III of England, betrothed to the Emperor Frederick II.

[185] 1 August 1235

[186] 20 January 1236 (HBC); Liebermann, 1879, 192.

[187] 1235 (Stringer 2004).

[188] The p with the contraction mark now partially obliterated by a stain.

[189] = P 1235, first item, is a close parallel .

[190] E and B both have the same error here; Henry married Eleanor of Provence, on 20 January 1236 (HBC), which B notes at b1257.4, s.a. 1236.P (t.259a) has the correct merch yarll prwuans.

[191] = P 1235, second item. Noted in C , c555.1.

[192] sic in MS. recte modica ?

[193] 20 January 1236 (HBC). Henricus . . . prouincie, see Liebermann 1879, 192; Luard 1865, 87.

[194] Not in P, R or S .

[195] Read interveniente; the scribe has made the upflick over the second minim of the middle n.

[196] Not in P, R or S .

[197] 30 March 1237 (HBC)

[198] rex cepít ín auxilium tricesímam mobilium . See Luard 1865, 317.

[199] June 1237 (Ridgeway 2004)

[200] = P 1237, first item, has much fuller obit, including details of the foundation of St Mary's monastery (R & S, explicitly at Llan Vaes yMon, Llan-faes in Anglesey).

[201] = P 1237, third item, is a close parallel (= R & S); noted in c557.1, paraphrase. Not in B, which instead has a note about English taxation (see fn. 198).

[202] January 1238 (HBC)

[203] i.e. Maud de Lacy

[204] 1238 (ODNB); Luard 1865, 318.

[205] Written here as if one word.

[206] = P 1238, first item (= R & S), partial; B supplies In crastino sancti luce ewangeliste = P (t.261a), trannoeth wedy gwyl Sein luc euengylwr; P continues with subsequent events. Noted in C, c559.1.

[207] 17 or 18 June 1239 (HBC).

[208] = B, b1260. Not in P 1239, possibly erroneous? P 1239, first item (= R & S) instead gives an obit. for Maredudd Goeg (or Ddall) ap Rhys.

[209] 11 October 1240 (Runciman HC3); Luard 1865, 88 (see also Luard 1865, 325).

[210] 11 April 1240 (HBC)

[211] xi in the MS.

[212] = B, b1261.1. P 1240, first and second items (= R & S), is a close parallel, but lacking the extended eulogy provided by B & E. Noted in C, c559.2+3.

[213] Recte abbatum

[214] 27 June 1241 (HBC)

[215] B , magna.

[216] = P 1241, first item (= R &S). P, R & S additionally note that the emperor had been excommunicated by the pope: . . . arpab a ysgymuniassei yr amerawdyr.

[217] = P 1241, second item (= R & S).

[218] = P 1241, second item (= R & S); P (t.262b–t.263a), however, represents this as the king taking Gruffudd ap Llywelyn and the others as prisoners to his prison in London: y brenhin . . . achymrut gruffud vab yr arglwyd lywelyn ar holl garcharoryon a oed gyt ac ef ay dwyn hyt yn llundein yw y garchar ef.

[219] = P 1241, third item (= R & S).

[220] 8/9 May 1242 – 24/27 September 1243 (HBC); see also B, b1264.1.

[221] i.e. Ware, Hertfordshire.

[222] 27 June 1241 (HBC).

[223] 8 or 9 May 1242 (HBC).

[224] 1242 (Powicke 1948, p.38ff; recte William de Marisco).

[225] P adds ychydic wedy y pasc, 'soon after Easter'.

[226] P adds namyn wedy kolli yeirll a barwnyeit, ‘but after losing’ (R, namyn wedy ellwg, 'sending back) ‘earls and barons’ (S, wedy gollwng yr jeirll adref i Loegr, 'after the earls had been sent home to England’) ef adrigawd gyt ar vrenhines ym bwrdeos, ‘he stayed with the queen at Bordeaux’. = P 1242, first item (=R & S). Perhaps noted in C, c563.2.

[227] i.e. Garth Crugyn.

[228] = P 1242, second item.

[229] B , b1263 omits obiit.

[230] = P 1242, third item. B adds note of the death of Gilbert Marshall at a tournament at Ware, his brother Walter succeeding him.

[231] recte Beatrice 25 June 1242 (HBC)? Margaret was born on 29 Sept 1240 (HBC). Additionally noted to left of column in a later hand: Natus margarete. Liebermann 1879, 193; Luard 1865, 89.

[232] 1 March 1244 (Tout, rev. Carr, ODNB).

[233] 24 or 27 September 1243 (HBC).

[234] 1244 (HBC).

[235] i.e. affinibus .

[236] 16 Jan 1245 (HBC). Additionally noted to left of column in a later hand: Natus Edm~. See also D, d58.1. s.a. mccxliiii: Natus est Eadmundus filius Regis Anglie. Liebermann 1879, 194; Luard 1865, 90.

[237] Rhys Mechyll ap Rhys Gryg (P, R & S).

[238] = P 1244, first item.

[239] The contraction lond' appears written out in full in B, b1265.

[240] = P 1244, second item.

[241] = P 1244, third item (= R &S); B & P add obit. of Maredudd ap Rhobert, P: arderchawc kygorwr kymry, 'eminent counsellor of Wales'.

[242] i.e. Degannwy. The y is undotted in the MS.

[243] See also D, d58.2, s.a. mccxliiii: Eodem anno duxit Henricus Rex exercitum in Walliam post pentecosten .

[244] 24 November 1245 (HBC).

[245] 25 February 1246 (HBC).

[246] July 1245 (Runciman, HC3; Jackson 2009).

[247] = B, b1266.1; P 1245, first item, not in R or S.

[248] read subiugare .

[249] A blemish partially obscures the lt of multa.

[250] = P 1245, second item (=R & S). P, R & S slightly vary this, specifying 'from all his kingdom (from England; R & S) and from Ireland' as the source of Henry's army, and P saying he fortified Degannwy 'against the will of Dafydd ap Llywelyn'.

[251] 25 February 1246 (HBC).

[252] 24 November 1245 (HBC).

[253] 22/24 December 1245 (HBC).

[254] Owain Goch (P).

[255] = P 1246, second item (= R & S) is a paraphrase of this, but P prefaces the obit. by noting that it was a rainy year, and ( P, R & S) that Dafydd died in the month of March (25 February 1246 (HBC)).

[256] Maelgwn Ieuanc (P).

[257] sic in MS; or perhaps read meironiyth ?

[258] B , deo .

[259] = B, b1267.2; noted in C, c567.1; substantially different from the account in P 1246, third item (= R & S).

[260] = P 1246, fourth item (= R &S); P, R and S add that Roger, Ralf's son, succeeded his father.

[261] 2 April 1247 (HBC).

[262] The intended contraction is unclear.

[263] Hywel ab Ednyfed (HBC).

[264] = P 1247, first item.

[265] = P 1247, third item, which supplies a very precise time and date for this earthquake; noted in C, c568.1 (n.b. error in Jones 1952 note p.206 where he attributes this to B).

[266] = P 1247, second item (= R & S). Noted in C, c568.2; Anselm le Gras, before 2 April 1247 (HBC).

[267] 26 July 1248 (HBC).

[268] 5/6 June 1249 (Runciman HC3). Luard 1865, 91.

[269] 5 or 6 June 1249 (Runciman, HC3).

[270] ix has been written above viii, correcting 1248 to 1249.

[271] = P 1249, first item. The events of the crusade are noted more fully in P. E has 1248 for 1249, and omits the years 1250–53.

[272] 5 April 1250 (Runciman, HC3).

Concordance P, (R) & S; E, B, C, 1190 to 1250.


Actual AD dates: these should always be correct for events between 25 March and 24 December.

P & S: dating apparatus in P and S, following Jones 1952 and 1971; P explicit dates in bold; actual dates of events, if different from that suggested by the dating apparatus, in normal font in brackets.

E & B: explicit dating apparatus in italics; actual dates of events, if different from that suggested by the dating apparatus, in normal font in brackets.

C: actual dates of events in brackets in normal font.



P & S







e1 1190

b1212 1190




e2 1191

e3 1192[1]

b1213 1191





b1214 1192




e4 1193

b1215 1193




e5 1194

b1216 1194




e6 1195

b1217 1195




e7 1196

b1218 1196




e8 1197

b1219 1197




e9 1198

b1220 1198




e10 1199

b1221 1199




e11 1200

b1222 1200




e12 1201

b1223 1201




e13 1202

b1224 1202




e14 1203

b1225 1203




e15 1204

b1226 1204








e16 1205

b1227 1205




e17 1206[3]

b1228 1206 (empty)





b1229 1207



1207 (1208)

e18 1207

b1230 1208



1208 (1209)

e19 1208

b1231 1209

c529 (empty)


1209 (1210)

e20 1209

b1232 1210



1210 (1211)

e21 1210

b1233 1211



1211 (1212)

1212 (bis)

e22 1211

b1234 1212




e23 1212

b1235 1213




e24 1213

b1236 1214 (1214/5)[4]

c534 (1214/5)[5]



e25 1214





e26 1215

b1237 1215 (1216)





e27 1216

b1238 1216 (1217)

b1239 1217 (empty)

b1240 1218 (1217?)[10]











c539 (1219)




b1241 1219 (1220)

c540 (1220)





c541 (1221)




b1242 1220 (1222)

c542 (empty)




b1243 1221 (1223)[11]

b1245 1223

c543 (1223)




b1244 1222 (1224)

b1246 1224

c544 (1224)





c545 (1225?)





c546 (1226)





c547 (1227)



e28 1228

b1247 1225 (1228)

b1250 1228 (empty)

c548 (1228)



b1248 1226 (1229)

b1251 1229 (1229)

c549 (1229)



e29 1230

b1249 1227 (1230)

b1252 1230 (1230)

c550 (1230/1)



e30 1231

b1253 1231









e31 1233

b1254 1233


c553 (empty)




e32 1234

b1255 1234




e33 1235

b1256 1235




e34 1236

b1257 1236




e35 1237

b1258 1237




e36 1238

b1259 1238

c558 (empty)



e37 1239

b1260 1239



e38 1240

b1261 1240


c560 (empty)




e39 1241

b1262 1241




e40 1242

b1263 1242




e41 1243

b1264 1243




e42 1244

b1265 1244




e43 1245

b1266 1245




e44 1246

b1267 1246




e45 1247

b1268 1247 (empty)





b1269 1248 (empty)




1250 (1249 bis)

e46 1248[12]

b1270 1249 (1249)

c570 (1249)





b1271 1250 (empty)

c572 (1250)


HWGC November 2018.



[1] An item of 1191 (see P, R and S, and b1213.3). E has no equivalent of P & S 1192 or b1214 (1192).

[2] P 'A year after that'; R 'and then'.

[3] E has the same note that P and S have as the second item for their annal for 1205.

[4] For B-text nominal dates and actual dates 1204–1229 see David Stephenson 'In Search of a Welsh Chronicler: the Annales Cambriae B-text for 1204–30' Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 72 (Winter 2016), 73–85 (84–85).

[5] c534 notes three events of 1214; then, two events, the first certainly of 1215, the second almost certainly of 1215; then a further event of 1214.

[6] c535 notes events of 1215.

[7] c537 notes events of March 1215 to Autumn 1217.

[8] c536 is explicitly dated 1216, but notes events of 1215 to 1216

[9] c538 notes the death of King John of England in October 1216.

[10] A brief note probably referring to the fall of Lincoln, 20 May 1217.

[11] The principal entries in this annal are for 1223, but the last item relates to the nominal year, 1221.

[12] E has '1248' for events of 1249, and then omits the years 1250 to 1253.